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THE 



CHINESE REPOSITORY. 



Vol. IV. — January, 1836. — No. 9. 



Art. I. Revision of the Chinese Version of the Bible ; necessity 
for the work; with suggestions respecting the manner in which 
it ought to be accomplished. 

As the relation of God to the human race is that of Creator and 
Father, the revelation of his holy will is addressed alike to all men 
of every nation and of every rank : and although to some of them 
it may he unknown, and hy others disregarded and even rejected, it 
still forms a grand and perfect code, designed in infinite wisdom to 
regulate alike the thoughts and actions of every human being on 
earth. Had we only an ephemeral existence, and at death were an- 
nihilated, the oracles of God would still retain all their beauty and 
excellence, and while we lived, claim, as they do now, our implicit 
obedience. In a word, it is only when we conform to the divine laws 
that we can be happy; and it is only when we deviate from them 
that we are miserable. Moreover, if we consider what a source of 
consolation tiiey contain, how rich are the blessings of peace, hope, 
and joy everlasting, which How from them, and how God’s wisdom, 
power, and mercy are displayed in them, all fitted to draw us near to 
himself, and to transform us into his moral image and likeness, we 
shall pity the man who does not attentively peruse them, and bewail 
the condition of those nations who do not possess them in their own 
language. 

In every age of the world, good men have spoken in raptures of 
God’s benevolence in giving to us his Holy and inspired Volume, and 
thereby making us acquainted with our future destiny. That bene- 
volence is also seen conspicuously in the preservation and promul- 
gation of his truth. More than two centuries before our era, when 
the Hebrew tongue had ceased to be extensively used, and the Greek 
language was spoken over a vast extent of territory around the Me- 
diterranean, the Septuagint was produced ; and thus all the millions 

vol. iv. no. ix; 50 



394 



Revision of the Chinese Version of the Bible. 



Jan. 



who spoke that language, and who at that time constituted the most 
civilized part of the world, had ready access to the divine records. 
At length, the Latin, the Chaldee, the Samaritan, the Syriac, and 
the Arabic versions appeared. In the mean time the New Testament 
was written, and that Holy Book was completed, which for centuries 
has withstood the attacks ot a thousand foes, and is destined, soon 
we believe, to he freely proffered to every individual of our race. 
The barbarism and superstition of the middle ages stopped for a 
while the progress of truth ; yet when the Reformation commenced, 
light soon shone forth through the darkness which had gathered thick 
over the nations. The versions of the Sacred Volume which were 
now made in almost all the languages of Europe dissipated a part of 
that gloom. With the nineteenth century a new era commenced ; 
Bible societies were instituted ; and the wonderful works of God, in 
effecting the salvation of mankind, are announced in a hundred 
tongues to pagans and to the worshipers of the false prophet. Even 
to China, long neglected China, and in its own language, the word 
of the living and true God is presented. 

Several years have now elapsed since the first versions in Chinese 
were printed, the particulars of which we have already laid before our 
readers, together with some remarks on the qualifications of transla- 
tors and the style most proper for such a version of the Scriptures. 
(See Nos. 6 and 7 of this volume.) With regard to the great multi- 
tudes who speak this language, both within and without the empire, 
our hopes arc greatly encouraged by the signs of the times; and we 
rejoice in the prospect which is opening to Christian philanthropists, 
of promulgating the doctrines of our holy religion among all the in- 
habitants of these extensive regions. New editions of the Bible for 
the immediate use of the Chinese are now called for, and it is in the 
highest degree desirable that such improvements should be made in 
regard to the style of the version as shall rentier it acceptable to na- 
tive readers. In this matter, ;m awful weight of responsibility rests 
on those who have aught to do with the business of translation. The 
language of one who has long loved the truth, and for its sake has 
often been persecuted, once beaten with the heavy bamboo, and fi- 
nally compelled to fly from his country, is very just: “with regard to 
those who read the Holy Scriptures,” says he, “ whether they believe 
or disbelieve, rests with them; but if those who translate the Holy 
Scriptures fail to render the language idiomatic and the sense perspi- 
cuous, and thereby prevent the readers from understanding the mean- 
ing of the text, then the blame will be on them.” 

Though the doctrines of the Scriptures are sublime, and some of 
them mysterious and hard to be understood, and though this Sacred 
Volume speaks a language and sentiments which can he found in no 
other book on earth, yet its diction is remarkably simple and perspi- 
cuous ; and there are few if any languages into which it may not be 
translated with greater ease than any other book whatever. Igno- 
rance of the language of China once represented that a translation 
of the Uible into it, was impracticable; but that extravagant opinion 



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Revision of the Chinese Version of the Bible. 



395 



has been disproved by the fact that two entire versions have already- 
been made ; and we do not see why the Bible may not be moulded 
into the most genuine and idiomatic Chinese, this language being so 
copious that there are but few sentences in Holy Writ for which cor- 
responding expressions cannot be found. We do not mean to inti- 
mate that terms exclusively biblical, and that ideas of things divine 
are to be found in Chinese writings: we might as well look for them 
m Plato and Cicero ; but the words and phrases of this language 
are so numerous as to afford proper expressions lor an almost end- 
less variety of thought and sentiment. 

A faithful translation must express the sense of the original per- 
spicuously by corresponding words and phrases. The meaning of 
the text cannot be sacrificed to elegant expressions, nor a paraphrase 
substituted for a translation, nor the spirit of the original lost or al- 
tered, without gross departures from the rules which ought to regu- 
late the translation of the Sacred Scriptures. On the oilier hand, if 
we undertake to render everything literally, and disregard the idioms 
of the language into which we translate, we shall produce a version 
tis unacceptable as it will be unintelligible to native readers, and they 
will become disgusted with the work, and the great object of transla- 
tion will be lost. Between these two extremes, however, there is a 
golden medium. 

A translator of the Scriptures ought to be thoroughly acquainted 
with them in their original tongues : he should have learned, by his 
own experience of their power on his heart, that they are indeed the 
word of the living and true God ; for only in such case can he fully 
understand their import. He must also be familiar with the language 
into which lie translates, having a thorough grammatical and critical 
knowledge of it, acquired by a familiar intercourse with (lie people 
of the country, and by an attentive perusal of their best books, — his- 
torical, poetical, and didactic. 

These remarks apply with great force to the translation of the 
Scriptures into the Chinese language, — a work of unparalleled im- 
portance on account of the vast multitudes for whom it is intended. 
The strong aversion of the Chinese to everything foreign, leaves us 
very little hope of their being induced to peruse the Scriptures, unless 
they are translated in an intelligible and pleasing style. The plan 
has been suggested of communicating the ideas, contained in each 
passage of the text, to Chinese scholars, who should clothe them in 
their own native language; but against this plan there is the very 
strong objection that the Chinese literati either cannot or will not 
imbibe the spirit of the sacred text : besides, their habits of thinking 
and ol expressing their thoughts are of such a character as to render 
them quite unable to express new ideas with facility and accuracy. 
The translation of the Bible, therefore, must be made by foreigners, 
who, alter its completion, may derive verv important aid from native 
scholars in ihe work ol revision: indeed, such scholars form the best 
test by which the foreign translators must determine whether the 
meaning of the versions is intelligible and the style accurate. 



Revision of the Chinese Version of the Bible. 



Jan. 



390 



In translating the Old Testament into Chinese, it will be found 
that the work can he more easily done by following the Hebrew than 
the English text, the former being more congenial to the Chinese 
idioms than the latter. There is moreover at the present time such 
an accumulated store of critical and philological knowledge, all 
brought to elucidate the original, both Greek and Hebrew, as well as 
their cognate tongues, that very few passages will meet the eye of the 
translator, of which the literal meaning cannot be grammatically de- 
termined. All the helps of this description ought to be at the com- 
mand of those who are engaged in translating or revising the Bible. 

Whatever portions of the Scriptures are in hand, — whether histori- 
cal, poetical, didactic, or conversational, the style of the translation 
ought always to be carefully adapted to the subject. The ancient 
classics of the Chinese are not written in a style which can be adopt- 
ed as a standard for mordern writers. The Shoo King, for example, 
though abounding in original ideas, is too laconic and obscure. The 
She King is too incoherent and trivial. The Le Ke and the Yeili 
King are equally objectionable, although great care has been taken 
in rounding their periods and giving them a proper cadence. In 
point of style, the Lun Yu is decidedly inferior to the Chung Yung 
and the Ta Ileo : these two latter, however, differ much from each 
other ; one being a verbose explanation of the tenets of Confucius, 
in a strain which sometimes degenerates into nonsense, while the 
other is a collection of ancient sayings, illustrated by remarks of the 
compiler. Among all the ancient classics, the writings of Mencius, 
one of the authors of the Four Books, afford the best specimens for 
imitation: his language, though diffuse, is perspicuous and elegant. 
The works of the Sheih Tsze, or ten philosophers; the Kwo Yu, or 
national sayings; the writings of Ngowyang Sew, Soo Tungpo, and 
Le Taepih, elegant, poetical authors; the Yeih She, or unravelment 
of history ; the historical works of Szema Tseen ; the San Kwo Che, 
a historical romance of the three states; together with the Shing 
Yu, or sacred edict, are among the best works which the translator 
of the Bible into Chinese can peruse for the improvement of his style. 
From these popular works he will he able to select portions which 
may serve as models, or at least as guides, in translating all the va- 
rious parts of Scripture, whether didactic, historical, or poetical. 
Works in a conversational style are numerous, and a few of the best 
of them should be carefully studied. Moreover, if the translator is 
familiar with the spoken language, as he certainly ought to be, he 
will find but little difficulty in performing this part of his work so as 
to give a good version of the dialogues which are found in various 
parts of the Bible. 

Let it not be supposed, however, from what we have here advanc- 
ed that we wish to embellish the Sacred Oracles in order to gratify 
the vain fancy or fastidious taste of men. The word of God is per- 
fect : it needs no embellishment; it can receive none. We protest 
against the use of fine words and phrases when used to the detriment 
of the sense, as we do also against a rendering of the original so 



1830 . 



Revision of the Chinese Version of the Bible. 



397 



close and literal as to create disgust for what would otherwise he 
perused with pleasure and advantage. Men who are aware of the 
great responsibility of the task, filled with the fear of God, prompted 
by love to the Savior and to their fellow-men, and unwearied in the 
study of the spirit and idioms of the language, are the only persons 
who can make a translation in a proper degree satisfactory and 
complete. Moreover, we regard it as the bounden duty of those who 
possess the necessary qualifications, to devote themselves to this work, 
and to use their utmost endeavor and all the means in their power to 
throw light on the structure of the Chinese language, and zealously 
and vigorously prosecute the good work which has been begun. The 
improvement of the Chinese version of the Bible demands at this 
moment the best powers and the most assiduous care of those who 
are in circumstances where they can aid in the accomplishment of 
this great object. 

There are some peculiarities in the Chinese language, which should 
be kept constantly in view by those who are engaged in the work of 
translating and revising the Sacred Scriptures. Its construction 
differs so greatly from that of either the Greek or Hebrew, that all 
efforts to model it according to the grammatical rules of those 
tongues, have oidy proved such attempts to be utterly impracticable. 
In regard to the structure of the language, much is due to Premare 
for having shown us what it is, and exhibited a distinct view of its 
idioms. To expect to find declension and conjugation in the Chi- 
nese corresponding to the original text, would be as vain as to try to 
translate into English every particle with which the Greek abounds, 
or to form a dual and aorist of the Greeks, with the pie), hiphil, 
hithpiael of the Hebrews. Particles ought to be employed to express 
that relation which is indicated by declination and conjugation in 
Greek and Hebrew, oidy where the idioms and genius of the lan- 
guage will admit them. By no means should the translation he 
crowded with auxiliaries, which neither add to the beauties of style, 
nor help to convey a more distinct idea of the meaning of the text. 
In the use of particles and auxiliaries we should be guided by the 
composition of those Chinese authors whose writings are most dis- 
tinguished for their perspicuity and elegance. 

The arrangement of words in Chinese resembles that of the He- 
brews; but as position in the former is often the only substitute for 
grammatical distinctions in the latter, it requires great skill to trans- 
fer the thought and spirit of the Hebrew text into the Chinese idiom. 
The numbering of the chapters and verses ought to be preserved in 
the translation; at the same time the whole of the text should he care- 
fully divided into paragraphs according to the sense ; and whenever 
perspicuity requires the words and members of a sentence to be 
transposed, no one ought to scruple to arrange them according to 
the genius of the language into which he translates. Euphony is 
careftdly studied by the Chinese, and they always regard the diction 
as bad, whenever the rhythm of the language is in any manner 
defective: this is the case with all their writings both in prose and 



Revision of the Chinese Version of the Bible. 



Jan. 



318 



verse. To make the cadence and preserve the measure of sentences, 
various particles are employed, either as initials, finals, or medials, 
forming an essential part of the written language. Some of these par- 
ticles are used in a manner directly opposed to all the rules of Euro- 
pean languages; but as genuine Chinese cannot he written without 
this class of words, they are consequently worthy of the careful con- 
sideration of the translator. 

Reduplication and pleonasm are peculiarities which characterize 
this language ; they are introduced and regarded as beauties, where 
any one but a Chinese would expunge them. Antithesis is also 
often employed, and is considered a high excellence, adding force as 
well as beauty to the diction. Climax is preferred to all other figures, 
and is carefully studied bv those who wish to excell in the art 
of writing. To foreigners some of these peculiarities may seem to 
be mere affectation ; but to Chinese, all writing, which is destitute 
of them, seems loose and spiritless. In speaking of these peculiari- 
ties, we would by no means admit that the meaning of the text should 
in any case be altered or obscured by their use; yet so far as the 
sense of the original will allow, and especially where the introduction 
of these figures will render the language more perspicuous, the trans- 
lator though a foreigner ought to yield to the genius of the Chinese 
language. 

The style of printing, especially as it regards the form and size 
both of the characters and of the volumes of the new editions of the 
Bible, must not be overlooked. In this particular, the taste of the Chi- 
nese should be the standard. For general circulation, the characters 
should be so large as to be perfectly distinct ; and yet the volumes 
of such a size as not be cumbersome. Until metallic types arc fur- 
nished, blocks must be used; but from these, if necessary, metallic 
plates may be stereotyped. Finally, to every department of this 
work — to the revision, printing, and circulating of the oracles of the 
true God, the most constant and unwearied attention should he given, 
until the millions of this empire, with all those in the surrounding 
countries who understand the same written character, shall each and 
all read of the condescending love, the perfect justice, and the al- 
mighty power of the King of kings, the Father of the fatherless, and 
the eternal Judge of both the living and the dead. The night is far 
spent, and it is high time to awake out of sleep. The welfare of 
millions of our race, and the word and providence of God call on the 
disciples of Emmanuel to put on their armor, and come up to the 
help of their Lord against the mighty, remembering that the battle is 
not to the strong, nor the race to the swift, that it is Jehovah alone 
who can make truth, righteousness, and peace everywhere victorious, 
and fill the whole earth with praises to the great 1 AM. 



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399 



A kt. II. Christian Union: an address to Christian ministers of 
all denominations , dated Jaffna , Ceylon , August 17 th, 183-5. 

[In complying with the request of a correspondent that this short address 
appear in the Repository, we must be allowed to express our wish that the 
feeling and conduct which it advocates, may speedily become universal ; we 
sincerely wish that good-will and brotherly kindness — the essence of Christian 
union, — may predominate, not only among ministers of the gospel, but among 
all men of every name and in every country. This is our wish : and, with all 
deference and soberness, we ask, whether all Christians, enjoying the light of 
Divine Revelation, are not bound to cherish toward each other and towards 
all men these benevolent and philanthropic feelings'? If we hope erelong to 
enter heaven, where good-will and brotherly love are perfect, why not imbibe 
and cherish these feelings on earth ? That pagans and savage men should 
‘ bite and devour each other ’ is not strange ; but surely it is time that Chris- 
tians — wise and enlightened men — should give proof of their Christian cha- 
racter, not in word only, but in very deed, by uniting and exerting all their 
energies to glorify their heavenly Father in doing good to their fellow-men. 
The welfare of our race requires this; our own happiness requires it; and 
what is more than all other considerations, God commands it : this is the com- 
mandment we have from him, “ That lie who loveth God, love his brother 
also.” Our feelings prompt us to say much on this subject, but our limits for- 
bid it ; we desist, therefore, to give place to the address of those who can 
speak better than ourselves.] 

Dear brethren, It has pleased our heavenly Father to prolong our 
lives in this pagan land until some of us have begun to look forward 
to the time when our work as the messengers of the churches will 
close. Whether finished as it should he, we leave for Him to deter- 
mine who is judge of both quick and dead. Feeling it a privilege to 
strive together with you for the faith of the gospel, and wishing to stir 
up your pure minds by way of remembrance, we take the liberty to 
address you and to invite you to give your serious and prayerful 
attention to one of the most plain and important duties based on the 
broad principles of the Bible. We refer to the duty of Christian 
Union. 

Christians are brandies of the same vine; members of the same 
body; a building fitly framed together — as lively stones built up a 
spiritual house for a habitation of God. As his sons and daughters 
they call no man Master. There is neither Paul nor Apollos. Per- 
fect love casteth out fear, and unites all in one, “ as thou Father art 
in me and I in thee, that they also may he one in us.” On this grand 
subject there is no doubt in the mind of any who have read their Bible 
with a desire to know the truth. All admit that it should he so, and 
that it must be so. That not only the watchmen of Zion will see eve 
to eye, hut that all will “ walk by the same rule and mind the same 
tilings,” for they are “ horn not of blood, nor of the will of man, hut 
of God.” These being our views, we deem it of the very highest 
importance that not only every Christian, but every denomination of 
Christians, should inquire most seriously and prayerfully, whether 



400 



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Jan. 



• heir conduct with respect to this great practical duty, corresponds 
with their knowledge of right and wrong, and with their obligations 
and privileges in this state of trial, and in this day of Christian en- 
terprise. 

The grand pre-requisite for this union is brought to view in the 
command, “ confess your faults one to another, and pray one for an- 
other that ye may be healed.” Those who cover their sins shall not 
prosper. This is true of confession to man as well as to God. 
Indeed, the obligation is so plain, that it is impossible for any one to 
enjoy the consolations of religion while directly or indirectly covering 
his faults, or justifying himself when he feels concious of being wrong 
or of having grieved a brother. How can a child be happy while 
conscious of disobedience to a parent or of unkindness to a brother or 
sister 1 And how can Christians be healed without confessing their 
faults to each other and praying one for the other? It is impossible. 
Everything else is short of a cure — is short of union, and in direct 
violation of the command we have just mentioned. This subject is 
brought to view in numerous other passages. If we have a conviction 
that others are offended with us,* or if we have aught against our 
brother, f we must go and settle it with him alone , before our gift will 
be accepted at the altar of God. This is the first and all commanding 
duty. Delaying to do this is disobedience. The plea that the other 
party is in fault, is an evasion. We must go and with him ‘ alone ’ 
be reconciled. This is the first step. We are not directed to write 
either notes or essays by way of apology or explanation. This is a 
plain rule recognized by every church. But if two individuals are 
requested to do this before they come to the altar, and if they are proper 
subjects of discipline while they neglect it, will not the great Head of 
the church require mutual confessions and reconciliation at the hand 
of those who occupy the high places in Zion and of different deno- 
minations and of societies too ? We believe there is a great mistake 
on this subject. Christians have considered that they have a right to 
censure those of other denominations and societies; to withhold com- 
munion and fellowship by way of securing or defending what they 
call their privileges, feeling quite safe under the bulwarks of party. 
But from the little we have learned of Christ, we have no doubt that 
the King of kings, guided by his own laws, looks upon it as nothing 
less than civil war and rebellion. Whatever may be the economy of 
statesmen, among Christians there can never be strife on the question, 
who shall be accounted the grcatest;§ “Ye shall not be so.” “Be not 
ye called Rabbi, for one is your Master even Christ and all ye arc 
brethren. He that is great among you shall be your servant, and who- 
soever shall exalt himself shall be abased, and he that shall humble 
himself shall be exalted.” We can easily see the beauty and feel the 
force of this principle. Every Christian recognizes its justice, and yet 
how very seldom do we confess one to another and pray one for another 
that we may be healed. On the contrary, the feelings of personal and 
relative importance are roused up and put themselves in attitudes of 
* Mat. v, 23, 24- t Mat. xviii, 15, 17, 35. I Rom ii, 23. § Lukexxi,24. 



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attack or defense on the slightest occasions. But why ? Does not 
our knowledge of good and evil admonish us not to enter into temp- 
tation ? Do not our better feelings check us ? Why then do we 
not “ rather suffer ourselves to be defrauded ?” Or, if we are concious 
of being in the wrong, why not gain a triumph over ourselves and our 
worst enemy by a frank confession? This is not only the privilege, 
but the duty of individuals and of denominations. Each is bound by 
express commands as well as by the general spirit of the New Tes- 
tament, ‘ to look not on his own tilings, but every man also on the 
things of others; in lowliness of mind esteeming others better than 
himself. Yea, all of you be subject one to another; and be clothed 
with humility, for God resisteth the proud and giveth grace to the 
humble. And that servant who knew his Lord’s will and prepared 
not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with 
many stripes.’ 

We may also urge the duty of union from the testimony given by the 
Holy Spirit. On the day of Pentecost, they were all with one accord 
in one place. The history of every revival of religion, whether recorded 
in the Bible or in periodical publications, shows that all distinctions 
not only of denomination hut of rank also, vanish away at once be- 
fore the power of the Holy Spirit. Every other consideration is 
merged in the momentous subject of saving souls. He who raises the 
question, who is of Paul, and who of A polios, would most evidently 
resist the work of God; and just ns soon as these distinctions are 
allowed to crowd themselves into notice, the Holy Spirit takes his 
flight, the revival ceases. This union must be both in heart and 
practice. We have no reason to expect that God will visit those with 
special blessings who are united “ on the public platform and at 
variance in the public papers.” If our hearts are alienated, how 
can the blessing of God descend ? 11 My little children, let us not love 
in word, neither in tongue, but in deed and in truth.” 

Every one’s theory on this subject is correct. How then is our 
practice? ‘ Not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the 
doers of the law shall be justified. Every one who heareth these 
things and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a man who builds 
his house upon the sand.’ How then stands our house ? And when 
every one’s work shall be tried so as by fire, will it not appear that 
we have suffered unspeakable loss, while in fact we might in our in- 
tercourse with each other have been preparing by all these daily but 
necessary trials of our love and union, to reap great benefits? To 
illustrate this, supposean individual has been ill-treated by hisbrethren. 
His opinion is disregarded, and some very severe remarks have been 
made. He feels wounded ; “ if a man of spirit, indignant.” If 
otherwise, he pores over the subject, but his feelings are alienated from 
those who have wronged him. What shall be done ? Shall he with- 
draw, and thus at once set up a personal and public opposition, and 
cut himself off from all opportunities of doing or of getting good, until 
by a system of coercion or of argument, or by both united, he can 
gain his object? If so, he is led captive at the will of his worst enemy, 

VOL. IV. no. ix. 51 



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Jan. 



and does his own soul an injury which his brethren could never indict 
and which they cannot repair. But if he conquers his own spirit by 
patient endurance, he gains an important victory and bruises Satan 
under his feet. And why not ? Did this trouble spring out of the 
ground ? Has any temptation overtaken him but what is common to 
man ? Was there no providence in this? The history of Joseph, of 
Job, of Daniel, and of Paul, gives us abundant evidence that God has 
designed it for good ; that this severest trial of his life is designed by 
his heavenly Father to discover to him his own heart, and to remove 
some deformity, or to add some beauty, which lighter treatment could 
not. [fhe make use of it and endure chastisement as an obedient 
and humble child, his reward is unspeakably great; but if he be res- 
tive and revengeful, he will reap the fruit of his own perverseness. 

We once heard the remark, “ If I had thought that 1 was capable 
of such feelings, I would never have been seen on missionary ground.” 
In the spirit of this subject, it is evident that this mail have been 
the very reason why that individual was a missionary ; that he might 
know himself; gain a triumph over his own spirit, and rise to a 
stature in Christ to which he could not have attained without these 
particular and special providences. The remark of another amounted 
to the following: ‘ The longer I live, the more 1 value union; I will 
give up any thing excepting those points which endanger the salvation 
of the soul, for the sake of securing this. Since I have cherished 
these feelings and acted on these principles, I have had a peace and 
elevation of Christian enjoyment which I never knew before.’ Now 
is this strange? Is it not the fruit of one of the plain and broad prin- 
ciples of Christianity? Does not every one’s experience prove that 
it is more blessed to give than to receive — to confess our faults rather 
than to conceal them — to forbear than to retaliate — to make sacrifices 
than to require them?* But this subject gains interest and becomes 
alarming, when we consider the many plain and striking texts 
which show that every one’s hope of heaven must be without 
foundation just in proportion to the amount of envy, strife, self- 
exaltation, suspicion, or shyness, which he allows to remain in his 
heart towards any brother in Christ. The consideration that 
he belongs to another denomination, holds a humble station, or 
occupies a high one, does not affect his duty ; for we are all one in 
Christ, and all members of the same body. If individuals are bound 
to exercise towards each other that perfect love which casteth out fear, 
so every denomination is bound to exercise the same love towards 
pthers, who are believed to hold fellowship with the Father and with 
jthe Son. What God has cleansed and accepted by the visible tokens 
of his blessing, (the descent of the Holy Spirit’s influences,) that, no 
one, in the exercise of Christian feelings, can call common or un- 
clean. Whether individuals, or societies, or denominations, all have 
one faith, one hope, and one baptism;! all as lively stones, are built 
up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, 
acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. 

* 1 Cor. xiii, 1-8. t Eph. iv, 1—6. 



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Situated as we are, in this district, in a great measure removr d <10111 
the giddy inlbiences of sectarianism, and from those “questions anil 
strifes of words whereof cometh envy, strife, railings,” &.C., and united 
as we are in heart, and almost of necessity, in a greater or less degree, 
in our work, we have looked with the deepest anguish, at those dis- 
cordant feelings which are so manifest in Christian lands, not only 
among Christians of different denominations, but even of the same 
denomination. Christians are in fact, living epistles; and as infidels 
and idolaters of all nations and ages have been shrewd in detecting 
what they supposed defects in the Bible, so it is now ; and when they 
see the wide difference between the word of God and the living com- 
mentary, no wonder they are confirmed in their error, and perish. 
We do not object to differences of denomination. These we have 
among -ourselves. But as the voice of a little band crying in the 
wilderness, we do call upon pastors and missionaries, that they prepare 
the way of the Lord, and make his paths straight in this respecl. 
Without this, we have no reason, as has been before remarked, to 
expect the special blessing of God on our labors at home, nor on the 
labors of missionaries abroad. We appeal to the testimony of his 
providence as well as to his word ; and ask, where or when has he 
ever sent down the special revivings of his grace and spirit, where 
real Christians have been at strife about a doctrine or a name ? On 
the contrary, how soon, even in a revival of religion, has the spirit 
of disunion extinguished the kindlings of his love and mercy, and 
buried both Christians and impenitent sinners in moral death 4 Or if 
life remained, it was only for the dead to bite and devour their dead. 
This train of thought, as it sweeps through the world and looks for- 
ward to the retributions of those who have been misled, stumbled, 
or neglected, by the disunion of their shepherds, is most awful. 
What then shall be said of such shepherds, and where will they 
appear ? 

Again, let us look at the subject of union as brought to view in the 
prayer, “ Thy w ill be done, as in heaven so in earth.” Now if the 
will of God is to be done on earth as in heaven, it is to he done by 
men, by us. Have we any doubt about tbe meaning of this prayer? 
There is undoubtedly a difference between heaven and earth, and 
these bodies are very different from those fashioned like unto Christ’s 
glorious body. But on the subjects of humility, of union, of love, and 
of holiness, have we any doubt? How then can we add, “ Lead us 
not into temptation,” when with these plain, glaring, and acknow- 
ledged duties before us, sometimes in the pulpit, sometimes in the 
retirement of our studies, and sometimes even in the house of pray- 
er, we give place to pride, self-complacency, and party feelings; are 
turned aside from our best resolutions; violate our knowledge of duty, 
and almost bid defiance to responsibility. 

It was once asked concerning a man of undoubted piety, “How 
could he pray so well, while in writing and preaching be maintained 
such doctrines?” The reply was, “I do’nt know, excepting that he 
was not praying then." Here is an important and most alarming 



404 



Christian Union. 



Jan. 



fact, which is sometimes brought to view by the expression “ his 
heart is right, but his theory leads him astray.” The very great 
difference between the prayers of Christians and their conduct, is as- 
tonishing. No one believes that there is the least feeling of a secta- 
rian spirit in the effectual fervent prayer of the righteous man ; and 
the very thought of praying with disaffected hearts, is revolting. Yet 
how is the church divided? And how many to whom the Head of the 
church has given ‘ ten’ talents, are found in the arena of controversy, 
with apparent fears for the safety of the ark, with much less occasion 
than had U/.za? If Christians would receive the blessing of God 
their Savior, they must in their intercourse with each other, and in 
their labors for the conversion of the world, come up to the spirit of 
their prayers. If those who occupy the height of Zion, have no in- 
tention to do this — if they have no conviction that this is their own life 
and the life of the world — and if they will not act agreeably to these 
convictions, with corresponding effort, they are utterly without ex- 
cuse. Like the captain of a vessel fraught with souls, with bis chart 
before him, the breakers distinctly within the reach of his glass, the 
wind beating, and the tide drifting — while he is deliberately looking 
on the whole scene with his hands folded, busying himself and seamen 
in washing the decks and coiling the ropes, or discussing the nature 
of the rocks and of winds. Christians nrust act agreeably to their 
convictions of duty, and make their life a commentary on their pray- 
ers. If not, the charge is irresistible; “ This people draw nigh unto 
me with their mouth, and honor me with their lips, but their heart is 
far from me.” IIow often, Oh! how often, in their prayers, Christ- 
ians ask the most exalted and glorious gifts, and make the most 
solemn promises, and in a moment forget what manner of persons 
they are ! How often, it can be said' of them, are these the persons 
who a moment ago were praying yonder? When things are so, 
how can pastors and missionaries expect to secure the blessings 
of God upon their own souls or upon their work? How can they 
expect that, the word of God will become a fire, and prayer a cru- 
cible, in which their souls from day to day are to be purified and 
made to reflect more and more distinctly the image of the Refiner? 
Here is the grand difficulty of the Christian warfare, and here the 
necessity of taking up the cross daily and hourly ; because our great 
adversary, and the different views and feelings of individuals and 
denominations, are ever ready to divert us from the great object of 
glorifying Christ and of saving souls. If Christians, however, intend 
to grow in grace and in the knowledge of Christ — if they intend to put 
on the new man which after God is created in righteousness and true 
holiness, they must live and labor in the same spirit which they 
bring hefore their heavenly Father in their prayer,- — in the spirit of 
love — of union — and of heaven. 

The principle, that we shall reap what we sow, is as plain in the 
moral as in the natural word, and the result much more certain ; in- 
asmuch as it is made the subject of covenant and oath. While there- 
fore Christians pray, “ Thy will be done, as in- heaven so in earth,” 



I83G. 



Christian Union. 



405 



and still neglect to cultivate most earnestly that love, and union, and 
holy zeal, and holy living, which every one believes are exercised and 
exhibited by those in heaven, their life contradicts their prayers, and 
turns them into little short of solemn mockery. ‘ lie that hath my 
commandments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me. If a man 
love me he will keep my words.’ In view of these remarks, what is 
the duty of the managers of different Missionary Societies at home? 
We believe there is a grand mistake on this plain and most important 
subject of union ; and we most earnestly call upon them to send out 
such men, and suck only , as will unite most cordially with all their 
missionary brethren of different denominations on those catholic prin- 
ciples, which recognize no sectarian feelings, and which will not turn 
aside from the great object of preaching Jesus and the resurrection. 
We earnestly entreat them to give their missionaries definite instruc- 
tions to this amount, and to hold them responsible for keeping the unity 
of the spirit in the bonds of peace. Missionaries among the heathen, 
shoidd know nothing but Jesus Christ and him crucified. We also 
exhort our missionary brethren, as they hope to answer it in that day 
when they stand with those heathens and native Christians over 
whom the Holy Spirit has made them teachers and pastors, that they 
lay aside all discordant feelings, forgive as they hope to be forgiven, 
and strive together for the faith of the gospel. We are the messengers 
of the churches and the glory of Christ ; his epistles, living and 
walking epistles, known and rend of all. The eyes of the heathen, 
of the Mohammedans, and Roman Catholics, are upon us. The eyes 
of other missionaries, both north and south, and through the world 
are upon us. The eyes of Christians in Europe and in America, are 
upon us. The eyes of angels, and of God the Father, Son and 
Holy Ghost, are upon us. How important then that we, who know 
these things, should wake up to our high and holy privileges, re- 
solving that we will cultivate with unwearied diligence this grand 
principle of Christianity in our hearts, and act in conformity to our 
knowledge of duty ; knowing that our works and example will live and 
have influence long after we are dead, that our time is short. How 
awfully interesting! How awfully responsible ! 1 If there be therefore 
any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of 
the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies, fulfil ye our joy, that ye be like- 
minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind. 
Let nothing be done through strife or vain glory ; but in lowliness 
of mind let each esteem others better than himself. Look not every 
man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others. 
Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus. Blessed are 
the peace-makers ; for they shall be called the children of God ; and 
blessed is that servant whom his Lord when he cometh shall find so 
doing.’ — With Christian salutations, we are most affectionately, your 
fellow laborers in the gospel of Jesus Christ. 

(Signed.) B. C. Mf.igs, I). Poor, J. Knight, L. Spaulding, 
.1. ScUDDF.R, II. R. IIoiSINGTON, S. H ETCHINGS, G. II. ApTHORP, 

N. Ward, A. C. Hall, E. S. Minor. 



40G 



Voyage of the Huron. 



Jan. 



Art. TIL Extract from the manuscript journal of the Reverend 
W. 11. Medliurst in the Huron , during her voyage along the 
eastern coast of China , in the summer and autumn of 1835. 

August 30th. Land in sight this morning about Keatsze (Kupche) 
bay, on the coast of Kvvangtung. Several water-spouts were seen, 
-and became objects of especial interest to us. A long dark cloud lay 
horizontally a little distance before us, and from this descended to the 
water a small round column of the same dark hue with the cloud. 
As any one of these columns broke in the midst it gradually dwind- 
led away to a long black line, which turned and twisted itself as the 
wind directed, till it quite vanished from sight. One imperfectly 
formed water-spout approached as near us as one or two hundred 
yards, so that we could distinctly mark its modes of operation : but 
it threw us into consternation, the more especially as we were in a 
calm, drifting nearer and nearer to it, till to our great relief it burst 
and faded away. On the surface of the water the space which it cov- 
ered was but a few feet in diameter, but that little space was one 
scene of foaming and boiling water, as though it were actually in- 
stinct with life, and ready to spring up and join its counterpart in the 
dark cloud. On the outer edge of this magic circle the water rose 
from the sea at first in a thin sheet, then becoming a thick mist by 
its rapid gyrations, shaped like a funnel, and as it rose higher quite 
fading out of the sight, or preserving but a thin columnar outline. 
But from a point of the clond directly over head appeared a similar 
portion of a dark column of water, precisely like that on the surface 
of the sea, except that it was inverted, and the base of it rested on 
the cloud, while the lowest visible part of it was composed of the 
whirling particles that had been separated when first rising from the 
surface, but now united again and rushing together in a revolving 
pillar up into the heavy cloud. 

The Chinese imagine these to be the ascent and descent of the 
dragon king of the deep, and indeed the resemblance to a rising ser- 
pent, or foaming dragon, and a flying monster, is so striking, that 
we scarcely wonder at their forming this superstitious notion. When 
the water-spout first rises, they say the dragon is ascending to heav- 
en, and when the spout is forming in the clouds, they say his head 
and hands are appearing. Indeed, I have seen representations in 
Chinese houses of the so called ‘ divine dragon,’ whose head and 
tail are never seen at the same moment, which 1 then considered 
entirely the fruit of their own imagination, but which I now suppose 
to have originated in these water-spouts. They have, however, car- 
ried their idea of the dragon much farther than these spouts would 
warrant, and have associated it with everything that is imperial or 
divine: hence we find dragons depicted in their temples, and the 
seat of the Chinese autocrat is called the ‘ dragon throne.’ It may 



183(5. 



Voyage of the Huron. 



407 



be that the great red dragon, that old serpent, the Devil, has had 
some hand in all this, in getting himself worshiped by one third of 
the human family. 

Shantung, September 13th. On the coast of Shantung the wo- 
men appeared very shy, and, when they could, retreated into their 
houses. One woman was observed driving an ass round a mill in 
which was placed a sort of millet being husked. The mill consisted 
of a flat circular stone about live feet in diameter, with a hole in 
the centre in which was fixed an upright piece of wood, with a hori- 
zontal one attached to it. This latter served as an axis of a cylin- 
drical stone, which operated as a roller, and the axis, extending a 
little beyond the edge of the large flat stone, was turned by the ass 
walking slowly around. The millet appeared very fine and clean, 
and was kept in its place on the stone by the individual who tended 
the mill. The woman on observing our approach left the mill and 
quietly walked into the house, while the blind-folded ass kept on his 
accustomed round as though his mistress had been nigh. 

Outside the village we saw a white tombstone, very much resembling 
what is met with in burial places at home ; there was an inscription 
on it, purporting to have been set up in remembrance of a faithful 
wife, who lay there interred. The pure white stone, the object of its 
erection, the adjacent village, the purling stream, and silent evening, 
all conspired to awaken sensations of the most pleasing kind, and to 
enkindle anew the ardent longing that these peaceful villages may 
be made more happy by the religion of the gospel. 

Sept. 14th. In a vale near to the sea shore, we came to a burial- 
place, differing in appearance from any which I had yet seen among 
the Chinese. The tombs were in the shape of a dome, built of squared 
granite stones, eight feet in height, and six in diameter, at the top 
approaching to a point. They were very strongly constructed, and 
st'cmed calculated to last for centuries; but some of them had already 
fallen to ruins, and others were old and covered with moss, without 
any inscription or anything that could indicate the name, age, or sex 
of the persons interred. We counted fourteen of these tombstones 
still standing, besides a few other graves of different shapes and 
sizes. 

October 1st. On quitting -Shantung it may be proper to observe, 
that we have nowhere been roughly used or ill-treated; and that 
the natives have been uniformly harmless and peaceable. We have 
not seen a weapon of any kind beyond agricultural implements; and 
with the exception of one old man at Keshan so, who had a rusty 
sword, and the few men at a guard-house, both the soldiers and people 
have been without arms. We have sometimes been roughly spoken 
to, and now and then forbidden to proceed from the shore into the 
villages; but when once on the high road no one has ever attempted 
to hinder or turn us back; and for all that we could see, it would 
he no difficult matter to travel from one side of the promontory to 
the other, if any object were to be gained by it; though if we were to 
attempt stopping in any place for more than a night, it is most likely 



408 



Voyage of the Huron. 



Jan. 



the officers would hear of us, and endeavor to capture or drive us 
away. The people, though inoffensive, were by no means forward to 
help or house us. We seldom had anything offered us, and even by 
asking could get little else than water. In some instances they did 
ask us to sit down on the ground, and very rarely to enter their 
houses; so that my impression is, that had we to depend on the 
charity of the people of Shantung we should be poorly off. 

With regard to their reception of our message, this journal will 
speak for itself. On the north side they were more willing to receive 
books than on the south, and in the places first visited, than in 
the latter; so that the further we went the worse we fared. This 
may be ascribed partly to the report of our arrival and operations 
having got the start of us, and to the consequent prohibitions which 
the officers had issued against receiving our books, or holding any 
intercourse with us. The people on the sea shore and in places 
immediately adjoining it were so greedy after books as even to 
rob us of them, while those in the interior generally kept aloof. 
This may result from the better acquaintance of the former with 
strangers, while the hitter are more secluded from the world. On 
the whole, the number of books (3500) distributed in Shantung, 
considering the time spent in it, the extent of ground traveled over, 
and the number of persons met with, has not at all equaled my 
expectations. As to oral instruction much cannot be said, for though 
the people even to the youngest child and meanest clown all spoke 
and understood the mandarin (or court) dialect, yet the time that we 
could afford to stay with them was short, the subjects treated of so 
strange, and my utterance, from long disuse of this dialect, being 
rather stiff’ and awkward, it was not to be expected that the people 
"would be greatly interested or improved. Still something was at- 
tempted at each stopping place, enough to give them a general idea 
of the gospel, and a clue to the better understanding of the books 
left among them. 

The temporal condition of this people in general seems compara- 
tively good. We saw nothing of that squalled poverty and distress 
spoken of in other parts of the empire. The men were generally 
well fed, robust, and good looking; and no want, so far as we could 
see, prevailed. We saw' no beggars and few ragged people : their 
clothing generally consisted of cottons, sometimes doubled, and not 
unfrequently quilted. Some of them wore shoes and stockings, and 
many had more jackets than one. Some had coats of skins with the 
hair or wool inside as a defense against the cold weather. A pecu- 
liar kind of cap was worn by the generality, and made of white felt, 
sitting close to the head, and turned up on each side so that it might 
be pulled down over the ears in the winter. Every person was pro- 
vided with a pipe and a light sort of tobacco, which he smoked 
very frequently. Their steel and tinder were carried with them, and 
as the ground was covered with a kind of white quartz which easily 
produced fire, they had only to stoop down and pick up a stone, and 
after striking fire throw their flint away. 



183 (i. 



Voij age of the Huron. 



409 



The dwellings of the people in Shantung arc mostly built of gra- 
nite, a few of mud, while the roofs are in some instances of tiles, but 
more generally of straw. Some are plastered and whitewashed and 
rather tastefully fitted up, while the dwellings of the poorer sort stand 
forth in all their rude simplicity. The general run of the houses are 
twenty or thirty feet long, ten wide, and eight to twelve high: a door 
occupies the centre, with a window on each hand. On each side of 
the door-way, in the wall, are fixed two blocks of granite, projecting a 
little from the front, with loop-holes in them, which are used for tying 
oxen or asses when people dismount, or while the animals are feed- 
ing. Some houses are double, having a front and hack row of 
buildings, hut we have seen none of more than one story high. The 
streets are generally front ten to twenty feet wide, with narrower 
lanes leading across them. Each considerable village is provided 
with a temple, hut in had repair, and the gods worshiped are either 
Budha, or a martial hero, probably Kvvan footsze. Little shrines 
are also to he seen in the fields, with rude stone images in them, or 
a mere tablet. On every projecting point of land throughout the 
coasts, were small temples or rather sheds, built as I was told by the 
fishermen to ensure success in their endeavors to obtain a livelihood. 

The ground is well cultivated where it is capable of culture, and 
the sterility of the soil is improved by the attention paid to ma- 
nuring the land. Almost every person met with in the fields is pro- 
vided with a hand-basket and a prong, with which he collects the 
dung of all the cattle in the way, and carefully conveys it home ; 
while at the entrance of every village are met heaps where the ma- 
nure is collected and maturing for use. The productions are beans 
in great quantities, millet of various kinds, buckwheat of a poor 
quality, rice, wheat, and maize. The fields are fenced off by hedges, 
but divided by small grassy ridges sufficient to enable every man 
to know his own; and the houses are not scattered over the various 
farms, but stand together in villages, either for defense or for society. 
The cattle are a small kind of oxen, horses of a diminutive size, 
asses in abundance, and some mules; shaggy-haired goats were seen, 
but no sheep except those which were presented to us by the officers 
at Keshan so. Birds in great numbers, and very tame, were seen; 
but no venemous serpent or wild beast of any kind was seen or 
heard of. 

October 19th. Island of Pooto, latitude 30° OS' N. We landed this 
morning with a boat-load of books, and commenced scaling those 
romantic heights covered with fantastic temples, so glowingly des- 
cribed by our predecessor in his account of this island. We soon 
found a broad and well beaten pathway, which led us to the top of 
one of the hills, at every crag and turn of which we encountered a 
temple, or a grotto, an inscription or an image, with here and there 
a garden tastefully laid out, and walks lined with aromatic shrubs, 
which diffused a grateful fragrance through the air. The prospect 
from these heights was extremely delightful ; numerous islands far 
and near bestudded the main, rocks and precipices above and below, 

VOL. IV. no. ix. 52 



410 



Voyage of the Huron. 



Jan. 



liere and there a mountain monastery rearing its head, and in the 
valley the great temple with its yellow tiles indicative of imperial 
distinction, basked like a basilisk in the rays of the noon-day sun. 
All the aids that could be collected from nature, and from Chi- 
nese art were there concentrated to render the scene enchanting. 
But to the eye of the Christian philanthropist it presented a melan- 
choly picture of moral and spiritual death. Viewed in the light of 
revelation and in the prospect of eternity, the whole island of Pooto, 
with its picturesque scenery, its sixty temples, and its two thousand 
priests, shows but a waste of property, a gross misemployment of 
time, and a pernicious nest of erroneous doctrines, tending to corrupt 
the whole surrounding country, and to draw off' the minds of men 
from the worship of the true God to the phantom Budha. All the 
sumptuous atid extensive buildings of this island are intended for no 
other purpose than to screen wooden images from the sun and rain ; 
and all its inhabitants are employed in no other work than in reci- 
ting unmeaning contemplations towards these same senseless logs, 
so that human science and human happiness would not be in the 
least diminished, if the whole island of Pooto with its gaudy tem- 
ples and lazy priests were blotted out from the face of creation. 

The only tiling that we heard out of the mouths of these priests was 
“ Ometo Full,” or Amida Budha; to every observation that was 
made reechoed “ Ometo Full and the reply to every enquiry was 
“Ometo Full.” Each priest was furnished with a string of beads 
which he was constantly counting, and as he counted repeated the 
same senseless, monotonous exclamation. These characters met 
the eye at every turn of the road, at every corner of the temples, 
and on every scrap of paper ; on the bells, on the gateways, and 
on the walls, the same words presented themselves : indeed the 
whole island seemed to be under the spell of this talismanic phrase, 
and devoted to recording and reechoing “ Ometo Full.” I never 
was so disgusted with a phrase in my life, and heartily wished my- 
self out of sight and hearing of its sound and form. The temples 
on the hills which look pretty at a distance, lose much of their beauty 
on entering, and the caverns which I thought would repay me the 
trouble of exploring, proved to be merely cavities, eight or ten feet 
deep, with rude images at the farther end carved in a rock. The 
inscriptions on the rocks by the road-side were most of them so shal- 
low that the action of the rain had tendered them nearly illegible; 
and the sculpture of the images in gjranite, which here and there lined 
the path, was so rudely designed and badly executed, that it some- 
times needed an explanation to conceive what the artist would 
represent. Small temples abound everywhere, and present nothing 
remarkable; of large temples there are two, very much resembling 
each other, and, except in color, not unlike that at Honan, opposite 
to the city of Canton. 

These temples, one of which stands near the north, and the other 
the.south end of the island, consist of four central buildings, one be- 
hind the other, flanked on each side by the dwellings of priests. The 



1836. 



Clanship among the Chinese. 



411 



first of these central buildings is a kind of porch, occupied by four 
colossal figures, which appear to he placed as guards to the establish- 
ment; behind this, is the principal hall with the three Budhas in 
collossal form, and surrounded by the disciples of the god seated 
around the hall: these hatter, though in a sitting posture, are about 
eight feet high. The third hall is dedicated to the goddess Kwan- 
yin, and the fourth is occupied by blue-bearded images with savage 
aspects. In this last hall we observed the library, which contained 
some thousand volumes of the Budhislic classics, relating the conver- 
sations of Budha with his disciples, and containing the prayers which 
are to he used by his votaries. In the rear of the great temple I found 
a school, taught by a disciple of Confucius, hut the scholars were 
all young fellows designed for priests of Budha. I asked whether 
the priests ever taught the hoys under their care, of whom there are 
great numbers on the island, hut was told that their sole employment 
is to recite prayers to Budha. Attached to the other great temple, 
I observed a refectory where the holy brotherhood get supplied with 
their daily rations, and though they profess to live solely on a vegeta- 
ble diet, they arc not remiss in preparing the good things of this life; 
for on entering their temples I almost invariably found them in the 
kitchen. 

Asking to he admitted to the high priest, I was told that he was 
engaged in reciting prayers to Budha, hut I rather suspected lie was 
paying adoration to Morpheus ; for on approaching his chamber, 
an attendant had to go and arouse him, taking with him at the same 
time his garment that he might not appear abroad in his dishabille. 
His conversation was as uninteresting to me as mine to him, and so I 
soon took my leave. Over the whole island, the priests readily took 
our books, and we found some that had been left there by Gutzlaff a 
few years ago; but I did not observe any soliciting hooks almost 
with ‘tears in their eyes,’ ns he witnessed on a former occasion. On 
all sides, I was gratified with perceiving marks of decay in the tem- 
ples and adjacent buildings, and earnestly hope that future travelers 
will find these worse than useless structures level with the ground, 
and the lazy drones who inhabit them scattered among the useful 
and intelligent part of their fellow-men. 



Art. IV. Clanship among the Chinese: feuels between different 
clans near Canton; substitutes for those who are guilty of 
murder ; republicanism among the clans. 

Thf. customs and laws of clanship in China often occasion and per- 
petuate any thing but a happy state of society. A few miscellaneous 
facts relative to this subject, which were recently communicated to 
us by a native friend, will give our readers some idea of the interior 



412 



Clanship among the Chinese. 



Jak. 



policy of the people of this country. Those of the some surname 
will in general be found inhabiting the same village, or neighbor- 
hood ; the various brances of the original stock, like the limbs of the 
banian tree, taking root around the parent trunk. In this way, not 
only a kindred feeling pervades all the members of such a family 
or clan, but the same characteristics, unchanged by the lapse of time. 
In this way too, the animosities which began in days long gone by 
are effectually preserved and cherished. Such old feuds, said our 
informant, are frequently seen at the present day, breaking out into 
open quarrels, the seeds of which were sowed many years ago. 

An instance of the kind occurs in the feud now existing between 
the Chung family on Danes’ island at Whampoa, and the Chuy fa- 
mily at the “ second pagoda.” This originated in real or supposed 
wrongs suffered by one of the ancestors of the Chung from the hands 
of the then more powerful Chuy. After many vain attempts of the 
former to avenge himself, on the near approach of death he bit off his 
own finger, and with the blood wrote the wrongs which he bequeath- 
ed as his chief legacy to his posterity, charging them to exact the 
full debt of vengeance. This bloody scroll is still preserved, and its 
precept most religiously observed. Hence the fruitful source of open 
quarrels between the two clans; hence a train of petty annoyances 
inflicted by the Chung upon the Chuy family; and hence a system 
of retaliation. If one of either clan be found alone, he is sure to be 
beaten or robbed, or both; their boats are often plundered, and re- 
dress is not easily obtained. But the clan on Danes’ island has a 
great advantage over their antagonists, who live on the north side 
of the river, because that island unfortunately is the burying-place of 
the Chuy family. The natural reluctance of the latter to forsake 
the tombs of their fathers, subjects them to many an insult from their 
implacable hereditary foes. When a poor man goes thither to bury 
his dead, with but few to protect him, no secrecy on his part can at 
all times save him from attacks of the way-laying islanders. But 
worse than all, to be compelled to see their sacred and costly graves 
desecrated, the erection of which has consumed the hard earnings of 
many years, to have every new tomb marred by their enemies, is 
very galling to the Chuy family. All strangers who have walked 
over the island must have observed that some of the most costly of 
the gravestones are defaced and broken, evidently by the hand of 
violence. Not unfrequently too it happens that on the day of the 
annual visit at the tombs, the putrid remains of a human being are 
found placed on the head of some principal grave. It is not wonder- 
ful therefore that this day, when the wrongs of the past year are to 
be retaliated, should end in quarrels. 

On the northern side of the river, which is the mainland, the vil- 
lages have nothing to separate them or prevent their hostile inhabi- 
tants from assailing each other. Accordingly, in these parts the 
management of feuds is reduced to system,, and the hostile families 
are ready armed with spears or bludgeons to enter into these 
not always bloodless broils. Where the hootile parties live within 



1S3G. 



Clanship among the Chinese. 



413 



a short distance, and carry on their labors and pursuits, eacli under 
the eyes of the other, occasions cannot long ho wanting to call forth 
their cherished hatred. If one turns away the water-course from his 
enemy’s little field to his own, and is too strong or obstinate to make 
reparation or be compelled to do justice, then not unfrequently the 
signal-gong sounds, the two parties marshal their hostile forces, and 
the whole of two villages are arrayed against each other in conflict. 
When numbers and advantages are equal, the quarrel lasts for two 
or three days, each party in turn pursuing and pursued. But when 
the contest ends, all parties return to their business as before. It 
sometimes, however, happens that death is the consequence to one or 
more persons, and the result has been known of four people actually 
killed and more than twenty wounded in one aft’ray. When such is 
the case, it is the general interest to hush up the* matter, and the 
murders are not reported to government. But if complaint is made 
and investigation becomes inevitable, the case is by no means 
so hopeless for the guilty, as might be expected where the laws 
against murder are so strict as in China. 

In each of the villages in the vicinity of Canton and Whampoa, 
where these feuds are so common, a curious provision has obtained 
by custom to meet such exigences. “A band of devoted men ” is there 
found, and a list of them kept, who have voluntarily offered them- 
selves to assume such crimes and to take their chance for life. When 
complaint is made, therefore, so many of the first on this list as are 
necessary come forward, confess themselves the perpetrators of the 
slaughter, and surrender to the government. It then belongs to them 
and their friends to employ lawyers and bring witnesses to prove it a 
justifiable homicide, or one which calls for mitigated punishment. 
Notwithstanding, they sometimes suffer the capital penalty, but more 
frequently it is softened to transportation or a fine. In a recent in- 
stance, within the past year, when four men fell in an affray, all of 
the accused were acquitted, and returned again to their homes. The 
compensation which tempts to the formation of the devoted band, is 
security for the maintenance of their families in case of suffering 
capital punishment, and a reward in lands or money, sometimes to 
the amount of $300. This sum is raised by the voluntary imposition 
of taxes on the inhabitants of that village ; and these taxes, said 
our informant, are no small burden to the poor, who can neither 
avoid nor easily pay them. 

Moreover, we were much surprised to learn that some of the dis- 
tinctive principles of republicanism are recognized by the inhabitants 
of this most despotic country. It is well known that the people in 
general, throughout China, dwell in villages ; in many of which no 
governmental officers are stationed. Yet every village must have its 
head man, and if necessary, a police. This head man is chosen by 
the resident villagers, of their own free will; receives j such annual 
salary as they please to give; holds his office during good behavior, 
but may be deposed and another substituted in his room, by the con- 
sentaneous voice of the principal persons in the place. The selection 



414 



Clanship among the Chinese. 



Jan. 



of this chief is done without the electioneering nnd strife which attend 
elections to higher offices in some other countries; it is the more 
easy, because the inhabitants of any village being in general all of one 
family, or at least one family predominating, it is necessary only to 
choose out the most eminent branch of that family as the chief man. 
Though this person has not the rank of a governmental officer, yet 
custom has given him a certain degree of authority ; and he is the 
head of the village in the view of the government, and as such is 
held responsible, and is very frequently the organ of communication 
with the villagers. His powers extend to the adjustment of most 
of the petty affairs of the place, to the infliction of flogging, &c. In 
the village of Whampoa, where are near two thousand rateable males, 
and probably six or eight thousand inhabitants in all, the salary of 
this head man is $300 per annum. He has under him fourteen po- 
lice or watchmen. These have direct control over the village ; for 
though the hoppo of Canton has a custom-house establishment there, 
yet it is not concerned with the government of the village, but only 
with the hoppo’s appropriate duties. The governor also has two 
officers resident there, either to watch over the hoppo’s servants or 
over foreigners ; they receive and transmit from each compradore 
the report of the arrival of every foreign vessel, taking from him on 
the occasion a fee of twelve or fifteen dollars. 

If any one is disposed to appeal from the decision of the head man, 
the first to which he can appeal is the seun keen, the chief officer of 
a sz6, which is the name of the subdivisions of a heen, or district. 
Of these sz6, the district of Pwanyu has four; and the sz6 which 
includes Whampoa comprises one hundred and sixty-four villages, 
each having its head man. But of late years, owing to the alarming 
increase of crime, and especially to the dangerous ascendancy of the 
Triad Society, an additional arrangement has been made by the peo- 
ple, which, according to the testimony of our informant, works well. 
Twenty-four different villages have joined together to build a large 
house for purposes of general consultation ; this stands at the market- 
town on the south of the island of Honan. A keeper or president is 
appointed over this public hall, where the head men of these twenty- 
four villages meet, and in conjunction with the president deliberate 
and decide on any cases upon which either one may ask advice. If 
they agree to present an accusation against any one, the charge with 
all their names affixed is forwarded direct to the cheheen. When this 
happens, seldom does the accused return to his native place again; 
transportation is the least which will be adjudged to him. These 
consultations and accusations are all secret at the time, and only dis- 
closed by the event. The president of this public hall receives a 
salary of $400 per annum. At this hall, once a month, all who de- 
sire it of the students in these twenty-four villages assemble before 
the president, and are examined on a theme proposed by him. The 
time devoted to this exercise is less than half a day, and the number 
of assembled pupils must be small. 

Notwithstanding all these preventives, disorders and evils abound. 



1836 . 



Notices of Modern China. 



415 



“Ah!” said our Chinese friend, “the times are changed, and the 
people are rapidly growing worse. This moon 1 have lost a friend, 
who was ninety-five years of age, and who, when living, often used to 
sit and tell me tales of the olden times. The people of frugal and 
honest habits are fast disappearing, and a new degenerate race is 
growing up. Once it was not the rage to gain wealth, but when a 
man had secured a subsistence he gave place to others. If a ferry- 
man in the morning had made enough to procure him food for the 
day, he then withdrew to make room for others who had not been 
so successful. But now the avails of labor both day and night fail 
to satisfy their thirst for money. Formerly, even the fish of this river 
did not hesitate to be caught by any one who put down his net 
properly for them ; but now the toil of a week will not yield more 
than the work of an hour once did. Thefts, robberies, and kidnap- 
ping are growing more and more frequent, and keeping the people 
in alarm. Within a short time past, I can enumerate six or eight in- 
stances in this vicinity of carrying off young girls, to be sold as slaves 
or ransomed by their friends. The way is for the kidnappers to give 
notice to the parents that if a certain sum, from fifteen to one hun- 
dred dollars, be sent within a certain time to a set place, the girl 
shall be returned; otherwise she is kept or sold as a slave. Twenty- 
seven years ago, a girl was stolen in this way, and on the failure of 
ransom, sold as a inaid-servant to a man in the city of Canton, by 
whom she was raised to the dignity of concubine, and then of a favo- 
rite wife ; after bringing up her own family, and experiencing ma- 
ternal solicitudes, it came into her heart to seek out her parents. 
Proclamation was accordingly made to find the father with such a 
name and surname, and at length, the poor old couple were found, 
nearly pennyless, houseless, and as they thought, childless. The 
daughter took them to the city, relieved their wants, and comforted 
their old age.” 



Art. V. Notices of Modern China: plots formed by religious as- 
sociations; insurrections ; banditti; piracy, feuds, fyc. By R. I. 

Having exhibited some of the principal characteristics of the Chi- 
nese government and the officers who compose it, we proceed to 
inquire into the effects which it produces in maintaining the internal 
tranquillity of the empire. Our materials do not enable us to exam- 
ine all its institutions ; still less to pursue the influence of the go- 
vernment in the social and domestic relations of the people. We 
must be content, therefore, with the obvious and very intelligible 
symptoms of resistance to its control, in the revolts and organized 
bands throughout the country. Insurrections in a despotic empire 



416 



Notices of Modern China. 



Jan. 



arc the eruptions upon the surface of the body politic, which mark 
the working of humors within : they arc the reforms of those govern- 
ments, and banditti “ are tbe opposition party.”* Some of them are 
local and exasperated by the tyranny of the magistrates : they will 
follow very properly, therefore, the observations upon those officers. 
Some, like the rebellion in Turkestan a few years ago, belong to the 
colonial policy of the Chinese, which may perhaps be treated sepa- 
rately hereafter. 

For convenience sake, we distribute the commotions of the empire 
into plots formed by religious and political associations, insurrec- 
tions, banditti, piracy, feuds of clans, and other local confederacies. 
These distinctions are clearly marked in the Penal Code. Section 
152 treats of magicians, leaders of sects, and teachers of false doc- 
trines; section 255, of rebellion and renunciation of allegiance : its 
clauses define tbe law and apply it to Tartar subjects in rebellion ; 
to clannish insurrections; to religious associations, especially one in 
the province of Fuhkeen, and the teen te hvvuy, ‘heaven and earth 
association ;’ section 256 relates to sorcery and magic, one of the 
clauses of which enacts that whoever is guilty of editing wicked 
and corrupt books with a view to mislead the people, and whoever 
excites seditions by letters or handbills, shall suffer death by being 
beheaded ; and all persons who are convicted of printing, distributing, 
or singing in the streets such disorderly and seditious compositions, 
shall be punished as accessories. “ The constituted authorities at 
Peking, and the governors of the provinces, shall not fail to take due 
cognizance in their respective jurisdictions of the offense of intro- 
ducing and offering for sale any species whatever of indecent and 
immoral publications.” A clause of section 266, which treats of 
highway robbery, awards death to all of any company of one hundred 
or more persons who shall assemble to aid and abet in a robbery — 
meaning banditti. 

Although there is, strictly speaking, no established religion accord- 
ing to the usual meaning of the term, in China, the emperor enjoins 
nevertheless upon his officers the observance of the ancient rites of 
the ‘five emperors and three kings,’ the ancient faith of the country 
revived by Confucius : but this is in their official capacity only ; in their 
private devotions they may follow any of the other prevalent forms of 
worship. Thus section 161 of the Code awards punishment to “any 
private family which performs the ceremony of the adoration of 
heaven and of the north star, burning incense for that purpose during 
the night, lighting the lamps of heaven, and also seven lamps to the 
north star; it shall be deemed a profanation of these sacred rites, 
and derogation to the celestial spirits. If the priests of Budha and 
Taou, after burning incense and preparing an oblation, imitate the 
sacred imperial rites, they also shall be punished as aforesaid, and 
moreover expelled from the order of the priesthood. Mohammedans 
and even Jews, it is said,t are tolerated, and the Christian religion is 

* Neumann’s History of (lie Pirates. 

♦ Chinese Repository, vol. ], page, 44, and vol. 3, page 172. 



1836. 



Notices of Modern China. 



417 



connived at in the present reign. The code of laws, therefore, ai d 
the practice of the emperor himself recognize two religions, one of 
state and one of conscience, and tiie first takes precedence. The 
objects of worship of the state religion will be found enumerated 
in this work.* It3 confession of political faith , which is more 
to the purpose of the present treatise, is extracted as follows! from 
a Chinese work called, Ta Tsing shing jieuii ; i. e. “ the sacred 
institutions,” or more strictly, “ the holy admonitions of the Great 
Tsing dynasty,” containing what they deem valuable of the verbal 
and written advices of their several emperors. The following, 
which appears immediately after a very pompous preface, is the first 
in the book, and was uttered by Kaoutsoo, in the language of the 
Mantchou Tartars, before the conquest of China. His majesty ad- 
dressed .all the nobles and ministers of state in these words: 

“A sovereign of men, is heaven’s son; nobles and statesmen, are 
the sovereign’s children; and the people, are the children of the 
nobles and statesmen. The sovereign should serve heaven as a 
father, never forgetting to cherish reverential thoughts, hut exerting 
himself to illustrate his virtue, and looking upwards, receive from 
heaven, the vast patrimony which it confers; thus, the emperor 
will daily increase in felicity and glory. Nobles and ministers of 
state should serve their sovereign as a father; never forgetting to 
cherish reverential thoughts; not harboring covetous, and sordid 
desires; not engaging in wicked and clandestine plots, hut faithfully 
and justly exert themselves ; thus their noble rank will he preserved. 
The people should never forget to cherish reverential thoughts towards 
the nobles and ministers of state ; to obey and keep the laws; not 
to excite secret or open sedition; not to engage in insurrection or 
rebellion; then no great calamity will befall their persons. If the 
prince, receiving the aid of heaven, reckons that he has no concern 
with heaven, and says, ‘this is what my own talents and strength 
have acquired;’ next, becomes remiss in the cultivation of right prin- 
ciples, and his arrangements lose what it is suitable and proper for 
them to possess; then, should heaven reprove him, remove his coun- 
try and happiness from him, will he himself be able notwithstanding 
to retain the celestial throne? If nobles and statesmen, who receive 
the favors of the sovereign, reckon they have no concern with the 
sovereign, and say, ‘ this is what my own talents and strength ac- 
quired,’ and so cherish wicked and clandestine plots; engage in ir- 
regular, covetous, and sordid proceedings; should the prince reprove 
them, and remove their noble rank from them, will they be able not- 
withstanding to secure their persons and families? As to the people, 
if they disobey the restrictions of the nobles and ministers of state, 
and proceed to secret or open sedition, to insurrection or rebellion, 
it will inevitably involve them in guilt, and bring great and immedi- 
ate calamities upon them.” 

It appears by the above extract that all that is required of the peo- 
ple by the ‘ state religion ’ is obedience, and that the disobedience of 

* Chinese Repository, vol. 3. p. 49. t Indo. Glenner, Aug. 1818, p. 148. 

VOL. IV. NO. IX. 53 



418 



Notices of Modern China. 



Jan. 



even the lowest officer of the government is an infraction of the di- 
vine law us well of the Penal Code. Any other religion is not only 
thought unnecessary, but rather mischievous than otherwise, although 
not interdicted. “ All these nonsensical tales,” says the commentary 
to the Siting Yu* or Sacred Edict, “about keeping fasts, collecting 
assemblies, building temples, and fashioning images, are feigned by 
those sauntering hoshang and taousze (the priests of Budha and 
Thou,) to deceive you. Still you believe them, and not only go 
yourselves to worship and burn incense in the temples, but also 
suffer your wives and daughters to go. With their hair oiled, their 
faces painted, dressed in scarlet, trimmed with green, they go to burn 
'incense in the temples; associating with those priests of Fuh, doc- 
tors of Taou, and hare-stick attorneys, touching shoulders, rubbing 
arms, and pressed in the moving crowd. 1 see not where the good 
they talk of doing is: on the contrary, they do many shameful things 
that create vexation, and give people occasion for laughter and ridi- 
cule.” The officers of government are expressly forbidden, under a 
penalty of forty blows, to allow their females to go to the temples. 
Others, whether male or female, are permitted, by a clause to section 
‘255, to “ assemble for the sole purpose of doing honor or returning 
thanks to a particular temple or divinity, and immediately afterwards 
disperse peaceably ;” but not (according to section 152) “ to dress 
and ornament their idols and accompany them tumultuously with 
drums and gongs.” 

“ As this prohibitory clause,” adds the translator in a note to the 
last passage, “ describes nothing more than what is frequently and 
openly practiced in every part of the empire, the law in this respect 
must be rather considered as obsolete, or as an article retained for 
the purpose of enabling the magistrates to control and keep within 
bounds these popular superstitions, though it may have been found 
dangerous or unavailing to attempt to suppress them altogether.” 

We gather from the above extracts that the only objection which 
the government, judging on its principle of isolation , has to the re- 
ligion of the people is, that it brings them together; but so long as 
they worship in secret or apart, no notice is taken of it. Religion 
in China, therefore, instead of being as in most other countries an 
engine of state, as regards the people, is discouraged if not denied to 
them. The great object of the government is to suppress all enthu- 
siasm, and most dangerous of all, religious enthusiasm, by preventing 
those combinations of the people, especially of the female sex, which 
tend to awaken and increase passion into enthusiasm. Hence, when 
it was reported to the emperor in 1817, t that thousands of people re- 
sorted twice a year, in spring and autumn, to a temple in Keanguan 
to burn incense and give thanks to the gods ; and also that similar 
meetings occurred in Keangse, Ngnanhwuy, and Chekeang; the 
leplv was, to disallow all such meetings and prohibit people to go 
beyond their own district for religious purposes, because all such 

* Chinese Repository, volume 1, page 307. 

t Indochinese. Gleaner, May, 1818, p. 91%. 



1836 . 



Notices of Modern China. 



41 !) 



meetings occasion a waste of time and money, are injurious to mo- 
rals, and afford pretexts for illegal associations. 

The people, on the other hand, being excluded from the state 
religion, naturally connect opposition to government with their own; 
hence, in China, more than in other countries, every plot against the 
government is based upon a religious association, and the country is 
filled with such combinations. “ Ir is still a common saying,” says 
the elder Staunton in his account of Lord Macartney’s embassy, “ in 
the provinces of China, where the Tartars most abound, that no half 
a dozen natives are assembled together for an hour, before they begin 
to clamor against the Tartars.” So it remains at present; and these 
combinations, however they may differ amongst themselves in the 
tenets which nominally bind their members, all agree in plotting 
against the Mantchou dynasty. 

The first of these societies mentioned within the era of our inquiry, 
was the pih-leen keaou, or 1 water-lily sect,’ which occasioned a re- 
volt in the provinces of Szechuen, Kansuh, Shense, Hoopih, and 
Hookwang, soon after the last emperor Keaking came to the throne, 
and was not subdued for eight years. Some account of the desola- 
tion and blood-shed which occurred in those provinces will he found 
in the extracts from the Peking gazette, published in the Appendix to 
sir G. T. Staunton’s Narrative of the Chinese embassy to the khan of 
the Tourgouths, and also in Appendix 11, to his translation of the 
Code. This society is expressly interdicted in section 162 of the 
Code, where it bears also another name, milefo. It was com- 
pletely suppressed for a while apparently, hut very soon was revived 
again under another name, the teen te hwuy, which is also men- 
tioned in a clause to section 255 of the Code. 

This association plotted a rebellion in 1813, which was at the 
same moment to be commenced by a rising in Honan,* an attack 
upon the palace at Peking, and upon the person of the emperor 
Keaking himself, on his way back from his summer excursion to 
Jeho. The emperor was detained on his journey by rain; but up- 
wards of seventy men attacked the palace, t and were only beaten oft' 
after a hard fight, chiefly through the courage of the emperor’s se- 
cond sou, (who has succeeded his father and is now on the throne,) 
who shot two of the rebels with Ilia own hand. A series of prosecu- 
tions and executions followed this unsuccessful attempt, and gave 
rise to numerous edicts by the emperor and remonstrances by the 
censors, in the Peking gazette. A spirited representative of the latter 
kind states, according to the Quarterly Review, “that many innocent 
persons had been brought to trial, tortured and suffered death, appa- 
rently for no other purpose than to evince the zeal of the officiating 
magistrates. The imperial edict that first announced the insurrection, 
has ascribed the cause and origin of it to a particular sect; hence, 
every person, it appears, who was known to belong to any other sect 

* M. S Translation. 

t Translations from the original Chinese, &c., as quoted in the Quarterly Re- 
view, vol. 13, page 410. 



420 



Notices of Modern China. 



Jan. 



than that of Budlia, which may he called the established religion of 
the country, became obnoxious to the persecution of these over-zeal- 
ous magistrates. The Christians being considered as a sect, were 
grievously persecuted in every part of the empire, and the Christian 
missionaries driven out of Peking. * * * * The magistrate abose 
mentioned states, that numbers had been unjustly confined, that 
many were passed from court to court, and put to torture under pre- 
tence of preparation for trial ; that they were finally liberated with- 
out trial after their health was destroyed and their property wasted ; 
and that numbers were seduced or tortured into confession by the 
inferior officers. Indeed, the whole document exhibits a melancholy 
picture of the abuses that exist in the practical administration of the 
criminal jurisprudence of this supposed humane and virtuous go- 
vernment.” 

The unfortunate emperor bore out the truth of the foregoing re- 
marks in a gloomy, desponding manifesto in the Peking gazette of 
the 13th November 1814. “ At this moment,” he says, “ great de- 

generacy prevails ; the magistrates are destitute of truth, and great 
numbers of the people are false and deceitful. The magistrates are 
remiss and inattentive ; the people are all given up to visionary 
schemes and infernal arts. The link that binds together superiors and 
inferiors is broken. There is little of either conscience or a sense of 
shame. Not only do they neglect to obey the admonitions which 1 give 
them; but even with respect to those traitorous banditti, who make 
the most horrible opposition to me, it affects not their minds in the 
least degree; they never give the subject a thought. It is indeed mon- 
strously strange! That which weighs with them is their persons and 
families; the nation and the government they consider light as nothing, 
lie who sincerely serves his country leaves the fragrance of a good 
name to a hundred ages; he who does not, leaves a name that stinks 
for tens of thousands of years. What hearts have those, who being 
engaged in the service of their sovereign, but destitute of talent, 
yet choose to enjoy the sweets of office, and carelessly spend 
their days !”* 

The association now took another name, the san ho hwuy, i. e. 
‘the society of the three united,’ or ‘the Triad Society,’ which 
exists to the present day. The three referred to in this name are, 
teen, te, jin, i. e. heaven, earth, man, which are the three great pow- 
ers in nature, according to the Chinese doctrine of the universe. The 
name under which they chiefly distinguish themselves, however, is 

* In the review of sir G. T. Staunton’s “ embassy to the Tourgouth Tar- 
tars ” in the Quarterly Review, vol. 25, page 424, the writer says : “ we have 
often thought, and indeed, have ventured to declare in a former article, that a 
series of the Peking gazette for one year would convey a more complete no- 
tion of what is actually passing in this great empire, than the whole body 
of information contained in that ponderous work of the missionaries, ‘ Me- 
moires sur les Chinois.’ The compiler of these ‘ Notices ’ is not aware that 
he ever saw the above passage until very lately, and he was not a little 
pleased to find his own opinion of the value of the Peking gazette, confirm- 
ed by such high authority. 



1836. 



Notices of Modern China. 



421 



hung k<-a, i. e. the 1 Flood Family.’ “ There ure other associations 
formed both in China and in the Chinese colonies, that are settled 
abroad; as the teen how liwuy, i. e. ‘quern of heaven’s company or 
society,’ called also the neang ma luvuy, or ‘ her ladyship’s society,’ 
meaning the * queen of heaven,’ the mother and nurse of all things. 
These associations are rather for commercial and idolatrous purposes 
than for the overthrow of social order; though it is said, that the 
members of the ‘queen of heaven’s society,’ settled in Bengal and 
other parts, unite in house-breaking, &.c.” The above is taken from 
Dr. Mil ne’s account of the Triad Society published in the first vo- 
lume of the Royal Asiatic Society’s Transactions, where some of the 
mysteries of the association are developed. “ The object of the 
society at first,” adds that account, “ does not appear to have been 
peculiarly hurtful; but as numbers increased, the object degenerated 
from mere mutual assistance, to theft, robbery, the overthrow of re- 
gular government, and an aim at political power;” which is the his- 
tory probably of all these associations. This society seems to have 
been troublesome in Siam some years ago,* and they are supposed to 
be engaged in daring and successful robberies in the neighborhood 
of Singapore at this time. 

The religionists have not been the originators apparently of any 
serious revolt since that of IS 13, although they are suspected to be 
the abettors of ino.-t of the disturbances which have happened, and 
have made many attempts to excite trouble. 

A Peking gazette of June 1816, contains the proceedings against a 
sect called the tsin<r cha mun keaou,t or ‘ pure tea sect,’ probably 
from their making offerings of fine tea to their trods. It appeared on 
examination that the ancestors of the leader of this sect had handed 
down its dogmas. “That on the 1st and loth pi every moon, the 
votaries of this sect burn incense; make offerings of fine tea; bow 
down and worship the heavens, the earth, sun, moon, fire, water, 
and their (deceased) parents; also Full, and the founder of their 
own sect, &c.” It appeared that proselytes had been gained in Hoo- 
pih and Sltanse provinces. The leader of this sect at the time of the 
discovery was put to death; his nephew who was acknowledged 
not to be implicated in the crime, except by his relationship to the 
leader, was delivered to the Mohammedans, ('why to them does not 
appear,) to be a slave, and two other relatives were exiled. 

In October 1817, a member of the imperial family was engaged 
with a eunuch and some others in one of these secret associations, 
for which he was degraded. J Many similar societies are said to 
have existed at that time,§ and the Triad Society prevailed in 
Canton, against whom Yuen the governor acted with vigor and 
apprehended, it was said, between two and three thousands of the 
members. “ It appears from occasional confessions which are pub- 
lished,” adds our authority with reference to the foregoing sects, || 

* Chinese Repository, vol. 1, page 24. t Fndo. Gleaner. May, 1817, p. 18. 

t Indo. Gleaner. May, 1818, p. 87. § Indo. Gleaner, May, 1818, p. 87. 

|| Indo. Gleaner, Aug., 1818. p. 14k. 



422 



Notices of Modern China. 



Jan. 



“ that the leading person in the fraternity, professes skill in curing 
diseases; the person initiated kneels down, puts the forehead to the 
ground, pays a kind of worship to the other, whom he thus acknow- 
ledges to be master. A certain phrase, as a kind of watch-word, is 
given, and a stick of incense is lighted up to solemnize the transac- 
tion ; it never appears that they are taught any system of doctrines, 
either political or religious. To sit cross-legged in the Hindoo pos- 
ture of meditation, seems to be taught to some. When a man ac- 
knowledges that he has performed the ko tow, or ceremony of pros- 
tration to a master, he is considered fully initiated.” This is not 
meant to apply apparently to the Triad Society. 

In February 1818, about a hundred families in the neighborhood of 
Peking were proved to be attached to one of these associations:* they 
recanted however and were pardoned. All this time the persecution 
was going on against the sects supposed to have been implicated 
in the rebellion of 1813. Some fifty of the parties concerned in that 
affair were still undiscovered.! A censor recommended amongst 
various other modes of discovering them, that the sea-ports should 
be narrowly watched. The emperor in reply remarks: that all emi- 
gration has long been prohibited, and therefore a new law is unne- 
cessary ; however, as whatever has been lung established is liable 
to become mere form, he requires the officers whom it may concern 
to see that the existing laws against emigration be rigidly enforced. 
The apprehensions of the government are marked in the cruelty 
towards a person in 18194 who had been banished to the frontiers, 
when only four years old, on account of his father’s connexion with 
the water-lily sect, and who was now put to death for the declared 
purpose of “ cutting off a sprout of rebellion.” 

Rewards were conferred, according to the Peking gazette of Ja- 
nuary 1820, § on some officers in Hookwang province, for their vigi- 
lance in discovering and apprehending Roman catholic missionaries 
and some other religionists, and a French missionary was subse- 
quently strangled. || 

A prize essay of one of the literary graduates published in Canton 
in 1820, enumerates some of the dangers to be apprehended from 
these sects and also the ill fate of several of them.fi “To the south 
of the mountain Meiling,” that is, in the province of Canton, says the 
essayist, “ common belief in ghosts and demons prevails, and conju- 
rors and necromancers are encouraged, the spirit of the people is hard- 
ened and insubordinate, and they are pleased with frothy and self- 
complacent things. Also on the coast where the foreign merchants 
of the ocean carry on their trade: and as to the Portuguese Roman 
catholic religion, who can insure that it will not roll on, and spread 
by degrees, until it enter China! * * * Examine now in succession 
former generations, and you will find that those persons who have 
subsisted by a stick of incense and a measure of rice, have without 

* Indo. Gleaner, Oct. 1818, p. 181. t Indo. Gleaner, Oct. 1818, p. 182. 

1 Indo. Gleaner, Jan. 1820, p. 230. $ Indo. Gleaner, July, J820, p. 346. 

|| Indo. Gleaner, Oct. 1820, p. 414. II Indo. Gleaner, July, 1820, p. 3t>4. 



1836 . 



Notices of Modern China. 



423 



exception come to an ill end, and their adherents and descendants 
have been exterminated : lor instance, formerly in the provinces 
of Szechuen and Hookwang, the plundering sect of the water-lily 
overspread three provinces, and were confessedly numerous; but 
when the great army arrived, they were put to the sword. And 
lately, another instance occurred in the case of the rebel Lintsing, 
who had formed a band and excited insurrection. Long before the 
appointed time for commencing their operations arrived, the prin- 
cipal ring-leader was cut into pieces, and the rest of the conspi- 
rators were slain. Also Choo Maoule of Yuekan, in the province 
of Keangse, and Fang Yungshing of Hochow, in the province of 
Ngnanhwuy, having rebelled, before the affair was brought to a head, 
their villany was defeated. You, inhabitants of Canton province, 
have also been frequently injured by these disorders: for not long 
ago, the plunderers of the brotherhood society, having collected 
together multitudes of persons, excited an insurrection at Yangshe 
shan in Pohlo ; but those who associated with and followed them, 
were all of them, instantly put to death. Many of you peaceable 
people were, on account of them, obliged to leave your families, and 
indeed, the whole neighborhood was disturbed. I would only ask, 
with respect to Chinlankeihsze (a foreign name according to the 
translator) the leader of this band, where is he now? Last year also, 
the vagabonds who collected bands and formed confederacies, with a 
design to plunder and rob, have all been apprehended and punished. 
Hence we see, that this kind of plundering banditti, certainly cannot 
by any chance escape, and whoever it is that excites insurrection 
and rebellion, the powers above will not suffer him to escape, &e.” 

We find no record of the proceedings against the religious associ- 
ations in China for the next few years, except of one which was ori- 
ginated ni the province of Shantung in 1824,* and “ circulated secret 
signals amongst themselves, and consulted together for the purposes 
of treason and rebellion.” The acting fooyuen was, however, vigi- 
lant and energetic : he apprehended above five hundred and seventy 
of the conspirators, which, no doubt crushed the society, for we hear 
nothing more of it. A censor reported the same year,t that a temple 
near Soochow foo erected to the superstition of Wootung, which had 
been destroyed in the reign of Kanghe, the idols burnt and the 
superstition suppressed for many years, had now been revived and 
sacrifices offered as before. “ The wretches place a pretended con- 
fidence in the prediction of the spirit, and promise a fulfilment of 
hopes and desires; and the extension of their baneful practices is 
not confined to the jurisdiction of Soochow alone.” It was ordered 
to be destroyed again. This vigilance probably kept these associa- 
tions in order. 

In 18274 we find the pooching sze and the judge of Canton issu- 
ing a joint proclamation against associations. In the latter part of 

* Translation of tlie Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 1. page 396. 

t Translation of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 1, page 409. 

t Mai. Observer, Dec. 18th, 1327. 



424 



Notices of Modern China. 



Jan. 



the. year, the Triad Society is spoken of as engaged in an affray at the 
Meiling pass, to the northward of Canton,* in which a been magis- 
trate was killed. Shortly after, it is found engaged at Leenchow on 
the western border of the province, where several thousands of its 
members are said to have assembled, t and cut down, and carried off 
the rice crops, together with pins, buffaloes, &.C., belonging to the 
farmers, several of whom were wounded in defending their property. 

A censor represented to the emperor in 1829,$ that the Triad So- 
ciety existed in large numbers in the province of Keangse, where the 
local government feared them to such a degree as to neglect appeals 
by injured persons, or only punished slightly for form’s sake. The 
emperor ordered the governor of the province to employ the military to 
put down the association. The translator adds to this notice, “This 
is the same society that exists throughout the Chinese archipelago 
and the straits of Malacca, wherever Chinese settlers are. They 
levy a fee on all who go abroad, and persecute those who decline to 
enter the society. Members of this society made an offer to a mis- 
sionary at Bankok in Siam, to assist him in propagating Christianity 
for some consideration, but he declined their services.” 

The governor of Canton memorialized the emperor in 183 1,§ 
about one of these associations, “ which,” he says, “ though differing 
in name from the sail teen liwuy (Triad Society) is, like it, composed 
of low vagabonds united together to plunder.” One of the methods 
employed by them to extort money from the country people, is to give 
them a stamped paper as protection, which if they will not pay for, 
their crops are destroyed. Since the 4th year pf the present emperor, 
when rules were first established for their punishment, four hundred 
of them have been brought under justice, but still the evil has not 
been got under. As one method of suppressing it, his majesty di- 
rects a proclamation to he issued, promising a general pardon to all 
who will surrender themselves. The governor, &c., suggested that it 
might he better to employ the idle part of the population in cultivat- 
ing unoccupied lands, which should he granted to them rent-free. 
“ By adopting this arrangement,” adds the governor, “already prac- 
ticed in tlie four western districts of the province, many persons who 
are incapable of paying the land-tax, will be enabled to gain a live- 
lihood, and prevented from falling into bad companies and evil prac- 
tices.” The emperor assented to this proposal, only desiring that 
care should be taken to prevent underlings in office and tax gather- 
ers from turning it to their own profit. He desired also, that attention 
should he given to the half-monthly reading of the “Sacred Edict,” 
and to the formation of free-schools ; also, that the magistrates in 
their circuits should converse kindly with the people, and incite 
them to the practice of virtue. 

A new sect called “ the wonderful association ” was discovered at 
Peking in 1831 or 1832, as mentioned in a former number of the 



* Mai. Observer, Aug. 26th, 1828. 
t Canton Register. Jan. 4th, 1830. 



t Canton Register, Feb. 18th, 1828. 
§ Canton Register, Oct. 15th, 1831. 



1836. 



Armenian Apothegms. 



435 



Repository :* tlic leader was strangled the same year, and one of 
his associates, above sixty years of age, banished.! Two other asso- 
ciations are mentioned as discovered at Peking, about the same time. 
In 1S32, in consequence of some discoveries concerning one of these 
associations, which had existed forty years at Peking, the governors 
and the ministers of state, during that period were degraded for not 
detecting it sooner.^ “ Page after page in the gazettes,” says the 
Canton Register, § “are fdled with tike names of those against whom 
sentence has been recorded.” 



Art. VI. Armenian apothegms: sophistry; misfortune; irresolu- 
tion; ignorance; art of teaching, §c. Prom a Correspondent. 

The sophisticated arguments of the sceptics and advocates of athe- 
ism, at first astonish, and then impose upon, and deceive minds of 
narrow views, and limited penetrations, as Parhelian, Anlhelian, and 
Paraselene deceive the vulgar eye; and echo, the ear; and like 
Calenture, present to the deluded a foaming ocean of death as a 
spacious field of life and verdure. 

When an ignorant, obstinate, illiterate and unmannerly biped takes 
upon himself to debate with a learned man on literary or scientific 
subjects, (to use an allegory,) he is in exactly the same ridiculous 
attitude, and anxious confusion, as a dwarf of the lowest stature 
standing <>' p-toe, and then jumping, falling, blowing, and puffing 
to put\ . light placed on the summit of the highest pyramid of 
Cairo. 

No misfortune : > greater than the impatience of bearing misfortune. 
Of all losses, thai is the greatest, which cannot be sunk in oblivion 
or erased by forgetfulness. 

The moral career of that man who wants resolution is, like the 
progress of him who is hopping about the declivity of a steep hill to 
gain its summit; and the idle wretch, who sits with his hands across 
his breast and expects that by the influence of a happy horoscope 
the golden showers of fortuiie will refrigerate the parched fields of 
his condition, is like him who is continually discharging at random 
missile weapons in hopes of shooting some game. Such inconside- 
rate beings may be all the days of their lives at the pool of Rethesda 
without any benefit to themselves; and are highly deserving of dame 
fortune’s maranatha. 

As spectacles are made for the near-sighted, and not for the blind, 
so books are made for such as are possessed of a little understanding 

* Chinese Repository, vol. 1 . p. 31. t Canton Register, Oct. 17th, 1832. 

t Chinese Repository, vol. 1, p. 21)5. § Canton Register, Jan. 10th, 1833. 

VOL. iv. NO. ix. 54 



426 



Armenian Apothegms. 



Jan. 



and penetration, and not for those who are destitute of that little lite- 
rature and sense, sufficient to understand and appreciate an author’s 
sentiments. 

He who can even in embarrassed circumstances continue hearty, 
and joyful, is either a callous stoic, a well versed dissembler, or an 
invincible hero of pure Christian philosophy, deeply initiated in the 
extraordinary and mysterious art of ensuring to one’s self happiness. 

He, who like Aristakace* by care, exhortation, and example has 
instilled into the minds of youth an ardent love of literature, and a 
desire and courage to appear in the field of knowledge as candidates 
for fame, may truly boast, or feel a secret comfort of having done 
his country a valuable and important piece of service without any 
bruit ; and has not such a friend of youth and encourager of merit 
nearly as strong a claim to eulogy as (1) Byradian for his valor, as (2) 
David for his knowledge, as (3) Dolvat for his medical skill, as (4) 
Marcar for his benevolence, as (5) Magadan for his fidelity, and as 
(6) Kaork for his affability ? Only to read is not to learn, but is to 
exhaust the organ of vision, to wear out the cover of books, to put 
to a test one’s patience, to outlay time, and after all, to turn a giddy 
headed booby, and a slave to the most ridiculous pre-apprehensions. 

Those thoughtless wretches, who insensible of the foulness of 
their depravity deride and laugh at sobriety decency and decorum, 
amply deserve to be treated like curs, that by howling and barking 
render inaudible and confuse the melodious harmony of a band of 
musical performers. 

A faux pas committed by one of Argusian vigilance will, notwith- 
standing his multifarious powers of discernment, bewilder him in the 
labyrinth of confusion; and an error, is always an error, and not a 
bit the better for having for its author an universal genius, or a 
collossys of learning. 

To give to a poor unfortunate friend advice only, and that too 
blended with the gall of sarcastic animadversions, without helping 
him to extricate himself from the clog and trammels of misfortune, is 
to open his eyes to be awed at the imaginary magnitude of his suf- 
fering, to add more poignancy to his grief, to increase his mentul 
disquietude, and in the end to teach him how and in which way to 
despair. 

lie who by a constant display of good-will and kindness insures 
the esteem of his friends, and by forbearance, insinuation, and ad- 
dress converts his enemies into friends, secures strong holds, and 
makes defensive preparations to resist and repulse the attacks of re- 
verses of fortune. 

Of all evils, that created or magnified by imagination is the most 
insupportable. 

* Aristakace surnamed Krasser ( BibliophUo ) was an Armenian grammarian and 
lexicographer born in 1178; he taught with great success theology and rhetoric 
in several provinces of Armenia Major and Minor, and died in 1239; the cele- 
brated grammarian Ezengatzy (whose works are yet extant in M. S.) speaks of 
this author in terms of high commendation, and cites many passages from his 
work*. 



1S36. 



Armenian Apothegms. 



42? 



It is wise to put on the appearance of a fool, when it is necessary 
to appear as such : many like Brutus gain their ends by such pru- 
dent stratagems. 

Some singularities are the effects of habit, and others the results 
of the bias of the mind. 

Indigence, by constantly subjecting it3 victim to disagreeable pri- 
vations, and annoying and mortifying submissiveness, and stifling all 
cheerfulness of mind, often puts upon the expressive countenance of 
the brightest genius, the dull, melancholy and stupid air of worthless 
sottishness; and that being who though enveloped in the dense mist 
of poverty retains a becoming greatness of soul, and bears a manly 
character, is indeed a noble model for imitation. 

He who is blindfolded by prejudice has many good feelings lulled 
to sleep. 

The friendship between the selfish rests on so frail a foundation, 
that the least breath of self-interest can completely overthrow the 
pretended fabric of amity, and light the torch of disco'd. 

It is a folly of a most ridiculous nature to be a universal sceptic ; 
but at the same time beware, believe nothing to be true before you 
are convinced of its veracity, and even then be careful not to be mis- 
led by your credulity and be a dupe of others’ duplicity. 

Those that like cocks on dunghills fight without any serious pro- 
vocation, only want a pair of fine glossy wings and red hat crests to 
be classed among the bipennated bipeds of the air. 

He is better employed, who is teaching a whale naval tactics, or 
teaching an ape the transcendent branches of mathematics, than 
he who is employed in an explanatory disputation with one who is 
obstinate through ignorance, and cannot distinguish bad from good , 
good from better , and better from best. 

The verdict of the prejudiced is the verdict of injustice. To 
despair is to add more stings to the cause of despair, and to make 
ourselves more unfortunate. 

As untimely, incessant rains copiously swell up rivers, and injure 
plantations, and all sorts of productive fields, so in despotic or demi- 
despotic countries, the subordinate officers vested with discretionary 
powers shelter their favorites, and injure and oppress the community 
at large* 

He that gives vent to his feelings of prejudice in ridiculous ges- 
tures and buffoonery, be assured, is one of the rif-raf, devoid of the 
principles of good breeding ; though he may sometimes by the aid 
of a little education now and, then screen his innate want of genteel- 
ness and sense of honor. 

Expect mercy from a hired assassin, from a seriously injured 
Turk, from an infuriated Malay running amuk, and even from a 
starving cannibal ; but give up all hopes of mercy when you fall into 
the clutches of a scrupulous, superstitious, and enthusiastic bigot, 
whose vindictive enmity you have incited, by endeavoring repeated- 
ly to prove to him the fallacy of his religious tenets. 



J. P. M. 



428 



Jargon spoken at Canton. 



Jan. 



Our correspondent lias given in a note the following account of the persons 
mentioned in the first part of his communication. 

1. Sumbat Byradian was a famous Armenian general, who gained many 
victories over the numerous enemies of Armenia ; he defeated the armies of 
Trajan, took prisoner king Artman, and after gaining a signal victory over 
Erovant the II, pursed him to his very palace and killed him. 

2. David was an eminent Armenian philosopher, who flourished in the 
fifth century; he translated from the Greek into his own language such works 
as his judgment suggested to him as most valuable ; it is worthy of remark, that 
this sage followed not scrupulously Aristotle and Plato, as did the European 
doctors of the dark ages ; he only culled from their works what appeared to 
him to bear the stamp of truth ; refuted their errors with great energy and 
precision ; he is surnamed Anhaglit Pihsopa, that is, the invincible philo- 
sopher. 

3. Doi.vat was a celebrated Armenian physician, born in 1432 ; he was 
master of the Armenian, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Syrian 
languages : after having traveled through several countries of Europe, and 
Asia, he fixed his residence at Constantinople : he published there in 1478, a 
work on medicine, entitled. Inutile to the ignorant : he is also the author of 
another elaborate work on the healing art ; he makes mention there of the 
Armenian physicians Mikitar, Aharan, Stephen, Jochlin, SWquis, James, Va- 
haran, and others. 

4. Marcar was a learned Armenian divine of the thirteenth century, of a 
very benevolent and charitable disposition,; he gave to the poor all the im- 
mense wealth and lands he inherited from his father : he is the author of a 
work on morality, entitled, The Treasure of Virtues. 

5. Araton Magarian was an Armenian poet, who with an adherence of 
exemplary fidelity followed Patriarch Minas, who was deposed and banished 
to the island of Cyprus ; “ It was interest, he said often to the unfortunate 
exile, that so long made me stay with you, but now it is duty that induces me 
to follow you and partake of your fortune.” 

6. Kaork was a celebrated Armenian writer, born in 1043 ; he was from 
his extreme affability of manners surnamed meghrick (honeyed). He is the 
author of a treatise of philosophy on the Aristotelian system, a Logic for the use 
of schools, the Life of St. Gregory in verse, and a commentary on the Book 
of Job. 



Art. VII. Jargon spoken at Canton: how it originated and has 
grown into use; mode in which the Chinese learn English ; 
examples of the language in common use between foreigners and 
Chinese. 

More than two centuries have elapsed since the inhabitants of west- 
ern countries first came to the shores of China for the purpose of 
commerce. During this period, an intercourse has been carried on 
of a very peculiar nature, and one which has been attended with 
circumstances such as have characterized the relations between the 



1S36. 



Jargon spoken at Canton. 



429 



natives and aliens in no other country. Everywhere else the resi- 
dence of foreigners has an influence, often a deep and permanent 
one, on the mass of the people. But with regard to China, the 
case has been different. The intercourse is now more restricted hy 
the government than it was at some former periods ; and as for any 
effects which have remained upon the great mass of the people, they 
are but little more than that left hy the passing of a ship through the 
ocean. Yet a communication has been kept up, which will always 
be regarded as exhibiting a peculiar phasis of the human mind. Our 
present object is not, however, to examine the characteristics of this 
intercourse, and the consequences which have resulted from it, hut 
to show through what medium it has been maintained, and what is 
the common language used between the Chinese and foreigners, in 
communicating with each other. 

The Chinese government has endeavored, since the closing of the 
ports by Kanghe, to restrict the intercommunication of natives and 
foreigners as much as is consistent with its existence ; and as one 
means of accomplishing this object, it has prevented foreigners from 
learning the Chinese language. We might suppose, however, that 
mutual advantage would have suggested some mode by which to 
acquire a sufficient knowledge of the language for common purposes; 
and that mere curiosity in the minds of the Chinese would excite 
them to know something of those w ho came so far to obtain their 
productions, and knowing them, to adopt their improvements. Every- 
where else it is expected that time will be devoted to the acquisition 
of the language of the country by strangers; and no one thinks of 
going to France, Germany, or India to reside, and intending to 
speak a foreign dialect while there. But here, the case is exactly 
ths reverse. Foreigners have for ages come to China from different 
lands for trade, and still all communication is carried on in a foreign 
tongue. Hundreds of Chinese now acquire enough of the jargon 
spoken to do business, while hardly a foreigner ever devotes an hour 
to learn the language of the Chinese. The effect of an intercourse 
so circumscribed can never be otherwise than to keep the two parties 
totally separated from each other in all those offices of kindness, 
sympathy, regard, and friendship, which result from a knowdedge of 
each other’s feelings and wants. Coldness and distrust will be en- 
tertained, and selfishness will be the primum mobile of action, soft- 
ened down a little by that politeness which is almost necessary in 
any society, however formal and heartless it may be. That much of 
the indifference and suspicion of the Chinese exhibited towards for- 
eigners, and still more of our ignorance of their designs, ideas, and 
springs of action in regard to us, are owing to our general inability 
to converse with them in their own tongue, no one who has examined 
the state of the case can for a moment doubt. All the ideas enter- 
tained by the great mass of the people about foreigners, and the 
countries from whence they come, are derived from native authors ; 
and they are a fit subject upon which all visionary fancies can 
base their tales of terror and wonder. That the time for the removal 



430 



Jargon spoken at Canton. 



Jan. 



of the erroneous conceptions now held by this people will soon come, 
we ardently hope; and we are assured from the movements now 
making in Christian lands that accurate accounts of western coun- 
tries will speedily be accessible to all classes of Chinese. 

There must he, however, some other reasons than the inefficient 
laws of this government, for the almost universal fact that foreigners 
have for so long a time entirely neglected the study of this language. 
And there are reasons, which though few, are strong ones. The 
entire absence, or nearly so, of all elementary books has been one of 
the most prominent; and the fact that there were no grammars, nor 
vocabularies of things in common use, has operated as an initial dis- 
couragement, and prevented many from making the attempt to learn 
the language. It was thought hard enough to learn, without being 
obliged to make books at the same time. The difficulty of retaining 
in the memory the shape of the characters has been a serious objec- 
tion with some, though we think that this obstacle has been overrat- 
ed. At first thought, it appears an almost impossible thing to re- 
member so many unmeaning marks, but the principles of associ- 
ation, together with the mode of combining the characters, greatly 
aid and diminish the labor. The practical effect of the law denounc- 
ing as traitors all those natives who dare to teach the language of the 
4 central flowery nation ’ to outside barbarians, is to interrupt the 
constant course of study whenever the teacher thinks he is in danger. 
These reasons, combined with the tax the study makes upon the 
time of those who come to these shores only as sojourners, and who 
intend to remain ‘in exile’ no longer than is absolutely necessary, 
prove impediments of so serious a nature that few undertake to re- 
move them. And as if these obstacles were not enough, the foreigner 
on landing hears a dialect spoken, which with an entire disregard of 
all rules of orthography and syntax, he can soon 4 pick up,’ which is 
sufficiently extensive for commercial intercourse with the Chinese. 
With this jargon he soon becomes well acquainted, and in a short 
time looks upon the acquisition of the language as a useless as well 
almost impracticable undertaking. Indeed, of so long standing is the 
gibberish spoken here, that few ever think of paying any attention 
to the Chinese. Considering all these things, it cannot be a matter 
of much wonder that so little attention has been paid to the subject, 
or that few of those who reside for years in China ever acquire so 
much knowledge of it as to be able to converse with a native in his 
own tongue. Most of those who have learned it belonged to the 
East India company’s factory, which generously granted annual 
sums as encouragement to all those desirous of acquiring it. Yet 
we indulge the hope that scholars in this study will increase ; and 
that as they increase, elementary books will be prepared to smooth 
the way, and induce others to commence. Intercourse will then be 
put upon a new footing, and as the Chinese become better acquainted 
with foreigners, they will esteem them more, and be more likely to 
regard proposed alterations in education and the arts with kindness 
and attention. 



1836 . 



Jargon spoken at Canton. 



431 



Such then being the case that no foreigner would learn their lan- 
guage, the Chinese have been in a manner compelled to learn enough 
of that one w hich would enable them to converse with the greatest 
number of customers. Whatever may have been the case in former 
times, the English is now almost the only language learned by the 
Chinese in Canton. The Portuguese spoken at Macao cannot be 
called an exception to this statement, for there the Chinese learn it 
as they grow up, and those born in that place can converse nearly 
as well in one. as in the other. The character of the dialect spoken 
there, moreover, among servants and shop-men, is that of a medley 
of Portuguese and Chinese ; and the idioms and pronunciations of 
it are so corrupted from pure Portuguese, that those speaking it are 
nearly unintelligible to one newly arrived from Lisbon. In all its 
characteristics, it is the counterpart of the ‘lingo’ spoken at Can- 
ton ; where, as well as at Whampoa and Lintin, English is the only 
medium of conversation between foreigners and Chinese. We must, 
however, make one exception to this assertion ; for some, a very 
few of the Chinese, can converse to some extent in Malay and Ben- 
galee. And here we may observe that if there are opposing obstacles 
in the way of foreigners learning the Chinese, there are one or two 
strong inducements for a native to be able to speak English. By 
far the greater part of those with whom he has intercourse are way- 
farers, supercargoes, and seamen of various grades, who of course 
have no idea of learning the language, and from whom the mere pro- 
posal would provoke a smile of wonder, if not of contempt. This 
advantage would be sufficiently great to induce the Chinese to attend 
to the study, even if it were the practice for those residing here to 
learn Chinese. These constitute the most numerous class of cus- 
tomers to the shopmen ; and interest, that master passion in the 
heart of a Chinese, induces them to qualify themselves for trading 
with foreigners. Another advantage to the native is that he has a 
dialect at command which is not understood by his customer, an 
advantage of no small importance in much of the petty bargaining 
carried on in Canton. It must not be supposed, however, that the 
Chinese are on the other hand able to understand foreigners when 
speaking to each other in good English: for that is nearly as unin- 
telligible to them, as Chinese is to the foreigner. 

English then being the common language in use between natives 
nnd foreigners, it may be worth while to consider the mode in which 
the former acquire it, and how they make out to speak an idiom 
so diverse from their own. There are no schools, nor anything 
worthy of that name, among the Chinese for the acquisition of En- 
glish. Persons who go by the name of ‘ schoolmasters’ are, how- 
ever, employed to instruct beginners in the shops and hongs. But 
the scholars escape from their tutelage as soon as they have acquired 
sufficient English to communicate the common ideas, as the prices 
of goods, names of furniture, &c. The number of these schoolmas- 
ters is not great; one of them was at school at Cornwall in Ame- 
rica two years, and speaks as correct English as any Chinese in 



432 



Jargon spoken at Canton. 



Jan. 



Canton. Instruction by such persons is, however, beyond the reach 
of most, and those who wish to converse with foreigners are com- 
pelled to pick up the words as they can find opportunity. This 
they do by staying in hongs, shops, and other places where foreigners 
resort, and are soon able to express their ideas in the jargon called 
Canton- English. This dialect has become, by long usage, estab- 
lished in its idioms, etymology, and the definitions attached to words. 
As its name indicates, Canton is the proper place for its exhibition, 
where it is spoken in its greatest purity. At Whaupoa, the Chi- 
nese speak better English than at Canton, which is owing to their 
usually hearing idiomatic English from those on board the ships. 
The gibberish in use among the negroes in the West Indies, and 
the corrupted French spoken at the isle of France, resemble this jar- 
gon more than any other dialect with which we are acquainted. 

The peculiarities of the Canton-English are few. Its idioms are, 
generally speaking, according to those of the Chinese language, 
than which nothing can be more transposed according to our ideas 
of placing words in a sentence. In consequence. of this, the meaning 
of many expressions is obscure, where the pronunciation of the 
words is nearly correct. Moreover, from the monosyllabic nature of 
the Chinese, and the many vowel sounds in it, adults become nearly 
incapable of enunciating a word of three or four syllables in a proper 
manner, especially where several consonants follow each other. The 
result is that the word is much broken when spoken, and often nearly 
unintelligible to a foreigner unacquainted with this fact. The dialect 
which is peculiar to those who are natives of Canton and its vicinity, 
is destitute of the consonants b, v, d,r, and st. To supply these in 
writing the sounds of English words, the native usesj^, f, l, sz ; and 
in pronouncing, comes as near the sound he hears as possible. We 
have before us a manuscript book, in which the English sounds of 
things are written in Chinese characters, underneath the name of the 
article also in Chinese. Similar books are very common among the 
people of Canton, and it is deemed one of the first steps to the 
acquisition of English, to copy out one of these manuscripts. Not 
only the names of articles but idioms, phrases, and rules of etymo- 
logy, are sometimes found in them, thus making a partial grammar. 
A few examples from the book now before us will show how correctly 
English words can be written in Chinese. In pronunciation, the 
true sound of course is more nearly attained. Those which follow 
are the numbers as far as twenty ; the sounds of the Canton dialect 
being the rule of pronunciation : “wun, too, te-le, faw, fi, sik-she, sum- 
wun, oot, ni, teng, lum-wun, te-lup, ta-teng, faw-teng, fi-teng, sik- 
she-teng, sum-wun-teng, oot-teng, ni-teng, tune-te.” A few more 
words will still further elucidate this point. 



January, che-na-wi-le ; 



chess-men, chay-she-mun ; 
scales, sze-kay-le-sze ; 

stove, sze-taw ; 



August, 
earth, 
west wind, 
buffalo, 



aw-kuh-she ; 
e-too ; 
wi-sze-wun ; 
pe-fu-law, &c. 



1836. 



Jargon spoken at Canton. 



453 



There are few monosyllables ending with a dental consonant, that 
are not spoken as dissyllables; as ‘catchee,’ ‘tankee,’ ‘makee,’ 
‘sendee,’ &c., although the paucity of such words does not give a 
peculiar character to the conversation. 

Every individual, whether mechanic, servant, or shopman, is of 
course best acquainted with the names of things in his line, and can 
pronounce them most correctly. The number of words peculiar to 
the Cantou-English, either in the word itself, or in the signification 
attached to it, is not great; perhaps there are fifty. But the pre- 
valence of the Chinese idiom, and the confusion consequent upon it 
to an English ear, together with the bad pronunciation of the words, 
render this jargon one of the most singular modes of communication 
that can anywhere be found. The mode in which it is actually 
spoken, and the phraseology employed can hardly be understood by 
mere description. We will, therefore, venture to present our distant 
readers with one or two conversations, such as occur in daily inter- 
course. We may here remark, that the chief object of this article is 
to give those of our readers who live “outside,” an idea of the manner 
in which the king’s English is murdered in this flowery land. A few 
conversations, written by one who was much amused with the oddity 
of this representation of the confusion at Babel, will serve our pre- 
sent purpose very well. They include many of the peculiar terms in 
use here, and are written so that they can be understood without a 
glossary. We introduce them for the edification of those who have 
not yet felt the soothing compassion and cheering benevolence of the 
son of heaven : for to those on the spot, the jargon is an evil that, 
since ‘ it cannot be cured, must be endured,’ and they can have little 
interest in perusing them. Our extracts stand thus, m the epistolary 
form : 

“ My dear , Almost everything has been written concerning 

the Chinese at Canton that could be told, except that I have never 
seen any account of the jargon in use here. I will not undertake to 
describe it otherwise than by sending you some specimens of conver- 
sations nearly as they occurred. From them you can judge for 
yourself how much such a language prevents any extended and 
social intercourse. Having a few books I wished to get repaired, 
I sent for a bookbinder. A personage, weighing full twelve stone, 
and showing his good keeping by a full round face, made bis ap- 
pearance, and introduced himself with a chin-chin, saying, ‘ my sab- 
bee velly well, can fixee that book alia proper.’ 

“On seeing them, he inquired, ‘how fashion vou wanchee bindee?’ 

“ ‘ My wanchee takee go way alia this cover, putee nother piece,’ 
said I. 

“ ‘ I savy ; you wantchee lever, wnntchee sileek cofuli V he asked. 

“‘ Alla same just now have got; you can do number one proper V 
replied I. 

“ ‘Can do, ca- -an.’ answered he, lengthening out the Inst sella- 
ble with a special emphatic earnestness. ‘ I can secure my no got 
alia same lever for this; this have Eulop lever.’ 

VOL. IV. ^no. ix. 55 



434 



Jargon spoken at Canton. 



Jan. 



“ 1 Maskee,’ spose you no got lever, putee sileek, you please : my 
wantchee make finish one moon so, no mistake; you can do, true?’ 
inquired I. 

“ 1 Can see, can savy ; I secure one moon half so can bindee alia 
proper,’ he replied. * You can call-um one coolie sendee go my 
shop.’ 

“‘Velly well,’ said I: whereupon he raised himself up and moved 
off, bidding me ‘good bye,’ as he went. 

“ A few days after this, going out into the streets of the city, I was 
frequently saluted by the expression ‘ can do,’ 1 can do, lo,’ which at 
first 1 took as an opprobrious epithet, but have since found that it is a 
corruption of‘ How do you do.’ The manner in which it was said, 
was however, any other than courteous. I was often called upon 
by beggars, and as I passed them they would sing out, ‘ cumshaw, 
taipan:’ these two expressions were perpetually reiterated wherever 
I went. On my return, I called at one of the shops frequented by 
foreigners, in which Canton-English is spoken in its greatest purity. 

“ 1 Chin-chin,’ said a man behind the counter, as I entered, ‘ how 
you do; long time my no hab see you.’ 

I can secure hab long time,’ said I ; ‘ before time my no have 
come this shop.’ 

“ ‘ Hi-ya, so, eh !’ said he. * What thing wantchee?’ 

“ 1 Oh, some litty chowchow thing,’ answered I, ‘ You have got 
some ginger sweetmeat?’ 

“ ‘ Just now no got,’ he replied ; ‘ I think Canton hab got velly 
few that sutemeet.’ 

“ Upon this, I bid him adieu, and walked into another shop; and 
after saluting the shopman, asked him if he had any news. 

“ ‘Velly few,’ said he; ‘you have hear that gov’nor hab catchee 
die ? last day he hab die !’ 

“ ‘ Yes, my hab hear; just now which si your partner have go? 
Two time before my come, no hab see be,’ I inquired. “‘Just 
pow he go country ; stop two day more he ,come back,’ answered he. 

“ ‘ JJefore time, I have see one small hoy st'ay this shop ; be have 
go country]’ said I. 

“ ‘ He catchee .chowchow ; come one hour so : you wantchee see 
he ?’ asked he. 

“ ‘ Maskee; you have alia same ; before time my have catchee one 
lacker-ware box, that boy have sendee go my house, no have sendee 
one chop V I inquired. 

“ ‘ Sitop litty time ; 1 sendee call-um he come,’ said a man sitting 
by me, who was smoking a pipe very sedately. 

“‘Well, more soon, more better; sendee chop-chop,’ I told him. 
‘This have what thing?’ said I, taking up two or three red incense 
sticks, smoking under the table. 

“ ‘ That hab joss-tick ; China custom inakee chin-chin joss,’ re- 
plied the man behind the counter. A noise in the street called all 
hands out of doors to see what was the matter. They soon returned, 
and he with the pipe observed, ‘ that have number one kweisi man ; he 



1836. 



Journal of Occurrences. 



435 



makee too muchee cow-cow; that have counter very trouh pidgeon.’ 

“‘What thing he do makee so much bobbery'?’ asked I. 

“ ‘ Oh, hab he insi one shop, makee steal; any man must wantchee 
he go that mandarin,’ answered he. 

‘“So fashion, eh;’ said I. ‘ What casion so much a man, so 
muchee nosie,’ I asked him, looking through the door at a noisy pro- 
cession going by. 

‘“Some man have catchee one wifo; to-day have counter good 
day, can mally velly proper.’ 

“ By this time, the boy came in, and I procured the chop or pass- 
port for the article I had purchased, and returned home. There are 
several other terms used in the jargon, to elucidate which I might send 
you some more conversations, but these two will do for a “ muster,” 
with the additional one more which I recently heard.” * * * * 

“ Enough, in all reason,” we think our readers will say, “away 
with it from the face of the earth, and banish it from use.” That 
such, in a great measure, will be the case before long, we think the 
signs of the times promise, and believe that the great and rapidly in- 
creasing intercourse of western nations with the sons of Han will not 
henceforth be exclusively carried on through such a medium. 

As students in the Chinese language increase, facilities for its 
acquisition will also multiply, till the means of learning it will be ns 
accessible as those now enjoyed in the other Asiatic tongues. Ami 
on the other hand, as the Chinese become sensible of the advantages 
to be derived from a better knowledge of the English language, bonks 
for their use will be prepared, which will tend still more and more to 
put within the reach of this people the learning of the west. We 
know of but one small book that has ever been prepared for the use 
of Chinese in learning English, which is a grammar, of a hundred 
pages, compiled by Dr. Morrison for the Anglochinese college at 
Malacca. A work was begun at Canton about a year and a half since, 
which was intended to assist the native in acquiring a knowledge of 
English, but it still remains unfinished. The Vocabulary of the 
Canton Dialect published by Dr. Morrison in 1828, is used by the 
Chinese to a very limited degree in learning English words. 



Art. VIII. Journal of Occurrences. Seizure of an English of- 
ficer; Jardine Steamer; United States sloop of war , Vincennes ; 
eunuchs; priests of the Taou sect; the Chinese statesmen, 
Yuen Yuen and Hengan. 

Os the arrival of ships oft the mouth of the river, which flows past this city and 
which foreign ships are allowed with native pilots on hoard to ascend as far as 
Whampoa, it is customary for their commanders to forward dispatches by native 
fast boats : sometimes the captain himself or one of his officers accompanies 



Jan. 



436 



Journal of Occurrences. 



the dispatc hes. All this is contrary to ‘ old custom,’ though it seems to have been 
the usage;, time out ot mind. The usage has grown out of the necessity of the 
case, and w ill doubtless be continued so long as the same necessity shall exist. It 
not unfrequently happens that these fast boats are pursued and seized, sometimes 
by boats belonging to the government, and at others hy piratical boats,— in 
both of which cases the evil is nearly the same. In some instances, letters have 
been thrown overboard and lost; in others, officers have been seized. A case 
o! the latter kind occurred early last month. The English vessel Fairy Queen, hav- 
ing arrived off the mouth of the river, one of the officers with the dispatches 
started in a fast boat lor Canton. When near Chuenpe, the boat was pursued 
and captured, and the officer made prisoner; whether by Chinese officers or pirates, 
he knew not. Alter he had been some time in the boat, one of the men was sent 
to the Fairy Queen, offering to release the officer and give up the letters for the 
sum of ; this man was detained on board the ship. By and bye another 
came, and was also detained. A third was sent, but he would not venture to go 
on board. In the mean time, the boat which had taken the officer was continual- 
ly moving from place to place, near Lintin ; and it w as not till after the lapse of 
four or five days, that he was released and the letters given up. The boat seems 
to have been a piratical craft, and failed utterly in obtaining money for her job. 
The case excited considerable feeling at Canton, and called out a large party of 
the residents, about fifty in number, with a petition, to the city gates. The petition 
was addressed to the governor: in his absence it was received by the fooyuen, 
his deputy, who censured alike both the hiring and the capture of the boat; he 
was pleased, however, to direct that the officer and letters should be immediately 
given up, and the case investigated. Nothing, however, so far as we know, was 
done besides the issuing of the order, ‘ which is on record ’ as follows: 

“ Ke the fooyuen, &c., to the bong merchants. On the 20th day of the 10th 
moon, of the loth year of Taoukwang. (December 10th,) the hong merchants re- 
ported that Mr. Gibb, an English merchant, had presented a petition, stating that 
a barbarian ship, captain Holmes, had corne to Canton to trade; and having on 
the 14th day of the moon arrived at Macao, while waiting for the pilot to procure 
a permit to come up to Whampoa, and being apprehensive that days would be 
lost by delay, and having a variety of goods and letters on board, the captain, 
anxious to forward the latter, ordered his mate to hire a boat and proceed to 
Canton. When he had arrived near Chuenpe, without the Bogue, he w'as pur- 
sued by a cruiser, seized and put in irons; and the letters detained. The men of 
the cruiser offered to release the officer on the payment of a large sum of money; 
and at length, being wearied and having no resourse, he wrote a letter and direct- 
ed one of the men to go to the ship. The bearer of this letter was detained by the 
captain. In consequence of those circumstances, a petition was presented and an 
earnest request made, that the officer might be released and the let ers given up 
immediately, for which favor extreme gratitude would be felt. This coming be- 
fore me. the fooyuen, I have directed a strict investigation to be made. It appears 
that the captain of the said ship acted improperly in not waiting for the permit, 
and in precipitately directing his officer to hire a boat to convey letters to Can- 
ton. It is the duty of the cruisers to examine and search (any beats they meet) ; 
and when they saw a barbarian in a native boat near Chuenpe, it was their duty 
to apprehend him and report the case. But how is it that no report has been sent 
up? If there be any extortion of money, it will be most detestable. It is right to 
examine and punish the offenders. Let the chefoo ascertain what cruiser it was 
that seized the officer of the ship. Let the officer and letters be immediately 
given up. Let the hong merchants inform the captain of the ship that he ought 
not to direct his officer clandestinely to engage a native boat to enter the port. 
Let the whole affair be managed and recorded according to the facts. There 
must be no connivance or delay,” &c. December, 12th, 1835. 

The Jardine Steamer. This vessel arrived in the Chinese waters, on the 20th of 
September, under canvas from Aberdeen, May 20th 1835; a legitimate produc- 
tion of free trade. Her machinery was soon put together, and her steam raised. 
A correspondent of the Canton Register, under the date of 13th of November, at 
Lintin, thus described one of her first excursions. “We all assembled on board 
the Steamer Jardine, alias ‘fast ship Greig,’ [the name of her captain,] and get- 



1836. 



Journal of Occurrences. 



437 



ting under weigh went round the different vessels lying in the onchnr«ge, some of 
whom cheered the little craft on her experimental trip ; she then started to 
make a tour ol' the island, which she accomplished in little better than an hour; 
on her return she made another circuit round the shipping, and being .again cheer- 
ed returned the compliment with a salute. It was indeed a pleasing scene; to see 
the velocity w ith which the little vessel (although not at her full power) ploughed 
the waters ol the deep, and the readiness with which she answered her helm ; to 
hear the echo of the music (which was It’.idly supplied by the commanding offi- 
cer of the lialcarras, and w hich continued to play during the trip) reverberating 
from the adjacent hills, and made More distinct by the still calm of the evening; 
to see the setting sun gilding the western horizon with his last, expiring ray’s; 
the shipping at anchor; and the blue hills which nearly on all sides bounded the 
view ; the whole scene, being heightened by the presence of the colleens, produced 
a calm in the mind, foreign to those engaged in the busy world; indeed, here you 
might have beheld in the reality ail that the speculative imagination of the lover 
if romance could picture to itself. Refreshments were liberally provided by our 
worthy host, and the evening terminated wilh our usual amusements.” 

No sooner was the Steamer in motion, than all the paper artillery of the pro- 
vince was leveled against her. Pilots, tsotang, cheheen, chefoo, — in a word, all 
the local civil and military functionaries, together with the hong merchants and 
linguists, have had it in charge “ to cxpell her instantly ” from the waters of the 
flowery land and drive her back to her native country. Moreover, in the great- 
ness of their strength they have not spared even the little sampans. On the 10th 
day of the 11th moon of the 15th year of Taoukwang, (December 29lh,) their 
excellencies, Ke, guardian of the prince, patrolling soother of Canton, and acting 
governor of the two wide provinces, and Pang, commissioner of the mari- 
time customs of this port, made an attack upon the little European boats, which 
for year? have been constantly plying between Canton and Macao; hereafter, 
* boats with holds and standing musts, carrying flags, are never more to be used ’ This 
decree was elicited by the presentation ol the following letter, w liich was address- 
ed to Howqua the senior member of the cohong, and by’ him communicated 
to the governor. The letter was signed by every foreign merchant resident in Can- 
ton, and couched in the following language, “To Howqua, senior hong merchant. 
Canton. 

“ Sir, — We the undersigned merchants of all nations residing at Canton, having 
for years past experienced much inconvenience from the tardiness and uncertainty 
of our communication with Macao, where our wives and children reside, as well 
as from the difficulties attending the conveyance of letters to and from vessels ar- 
riving and departing, have lately procured from Europe, at a considerable ex- 
pense, a traveling boat of a modern construction propelled by steam, and capable 
of moving against wind and tide. The said boat having arrived at Lintin, we 
intend to order her up without delay; and ns the officers stationed at the different 
forts, never having seen a traveling boat of this description, may entertain erro- 
neous ideas regarding her, and may attempt to impede her passage up the river, 
which may terminate in disaster, tile motive of our now addressing you is to re- 
quest the favor of your forwarding a true statement to the government officers, in 
order to preclude the possibility of misunderstanding or trouble. Being all per- 
sonally known to you, it is superfluous to assure you of our peaceable dispositions, 
and the rectitude of our intentions. Our boat is purely a passage boat, and no 
cargo can ever be admitted. Her length is eighty -five feet, beam seventeen feet, 
draft of water six feet. [Reduced to Chinese feet in the Chinese letter, being 
seventy feet in length, fourteen beam, five draft of water.] Neither is she provided 
with defensive weapons of any description; such is our unbounded confidence 
in the protection of the imperial government. Any officer doubting our statement 
can satisfy himself by personal inspection. The regularity of communication thus 
established will leave no inducement to resort any longer to Chinese fast boats for 
the conveyance of letters or passengers, which has so frequently led to petitioning 
at the city gate ; removing at once one of the chief sources of trouble to the hong 
merchants, as well as to ourselves. The boat is expected at Canton in seven days, 
when we shall he happy to see you, sir, or any gentleman of your honorable coun- 
try on board. With compliments we fix our names." 



438 



Journal of Occurrences. 



Jan. 



The passage boats plying between Canton and Macao continue to run as for- 
merly, and no “ thundering tire from the great guns of the forts” has been opened 
on them. The proprietors of the Steamer, however, have not yet deemed it ad- 
visable to bring her to Canton. One of her movements up the river is thus des- 
cribed by an eye-witness, whose communication appeared in the Register of the 
5tb instant. 

“ At half past seven on the 1st of January, the steamer Jardine, with a few gen- 
tlemen on board, left Lintin, and precisely in three hours arrived off Chuenpe 
when a heavy firing from every fort on both sides of the Bogue took place, though 
it is supposed few if any of the guns were shotted ; those fired from the nearest fort, 
Chuenpe, were certainly not so. The boat backed out of the line of the Chuenpe 
guns, when three of the passengers, one acting as interpreter, stepped into the 
small row-boat of the Steamer with four Lascars and pulled on shore towards the 
fort and towards a large turn-out of their boats and junks. This jolly-boat was 
cautiously approached by a soldier row-boat, with perhaps forty men. Oars were 
tossed up and the headman asked to come into the jolly-boat : he did so, and a card 
a duplicate of the one given the previous night at Lintin, was shown to him; on pe- 
rusal he told the interpreter that the fooyuen’s orders to slop the passage of the boat 
were peremptory. He was told that if the commanding officerat the fort or of the 
fleet, allowed us an audience and confirmed this the boat would go away ; he asked 
us to follow his boat and he would lead us to the admiral ; we did so, and gave him 
the card, which reading attentively he informed us his orders were imperative not 
to admit the boat. We asked him to send up to the fooyuen for orders that the boat 
might be examined there instead of at Whampoa, and if so, the boat should wait ; 
this, he^aid, was contrary to his orders. — We asked him to come on board the 
Steamer, this he frankly agreed to, and with above one hundred attendants, two 
of some rank, he instantly came. The curiosity of all was unbounded, the engine 
could not be approached for masses of Chinese, but on a word from an officer they 
all went to their boats. At his own request the admiral — for such is his rank — was 
towed by the Steamer to and fro up and down the Bogue, in presence of thousands 
at all paces except her fastest pace. The admiral and his officers after this came 
on board; meanwhile an intelligent Chinese officer had measured the length 
and breadth of the Steamer, looked for arms and cargo, and declared there 
were none. 

“ The admiral, after being towed, came on board, went below and satisfied 
himself of the want of arms, had the crew mustered forwards and passengers aft 
and counted them ; he partook with a great deal of zest of several glasses of sherry 
with some biscuit and some snuff ; his determination to express friendly intentions 
was marked ; he volunteered to say — ‘ his own desire was that the boat, which was 
strictly a passage boat without arms or cargo, should pass up; but that his orders 
were express.’ As soon as the Chinese took to their boats, the Steamer departed 
to Lintin and Macao, the passengers by her first trip got into English sailing boats 
and proceeded to Canton. On Monday next, the Steamer will again be at 
Chuenpe and a similar arrangement take place. 

“A party passing the Bogue at night found the forts still firing, the war-junks 
exchanging signals and rockets, in short” much ado about nothing.” 

"The result of the trial to establish steam-passage to Macao, though consequential 
to foreigners in this land of oppression, its success or nonsuccess to the fooyuen must 
be a very minor interest ; therefore arrays of boats, men, and ships, displays of five 
well-found batteries firing for hours to destroy or intimidate a craft 17 feet by 80, 
with a crew of thirteen men, places the fooyuen in a situation absolutely farcical, 
the more so that the expenditure of five tons of coals can at any time put him to this 
show of Chinese bravado. 2d January, 1836. 

The United States sloop of roar Vincennes. The following edict affords an ad- 
mirable specimen both of Chinese diplomacy and of their national hospitality. 
In all their official dispatches not the least error is ever allowed; and towards all 
those who come from afar they always show unbounded kindness. So the Chinese 
declare; and so many foreigners believe. For many years, the intercouse be- 
tween the Chinese and the United States has been “mutually beneficial and sa- 
tisfactory;” i e. there never has been any intercourse between the governments 
of the two countries; and since 1784, Americans resident in Canton have always 



1S36. 



Journal of Occurrences. 



4.39 



“ reverently obeyed the established regulations and never shown the least dissatis- 
faction.” Thus “ it is on record,” that the two countries ever have been at peace, 
and on terms of friendship. In this situation of affairs, a visitor arrives from (he 
United States, and “ on account of adverse winds,” and “ for no other reason,” 
anchors for a little time, when forthwith appears the following mandate. 

“An edict from Fang, by imperial authority acting director of his majesty’s 
flower gardens, commissioner of customs at the port Canton, &c., &c., to the 
hong merchants. 

“ The deputy officers at the custom-house in Macao have sent up a statement 
to me, that ‘on the 16th of the 11th moon (January 4th 1836), the pilot Tang 
Kingnang reported to them as follows : “ On the 15th of the present moon, 
(January 3d,) an American cruiser, Aulick, came and anchored at Lintin, and 
I instantly inquired the reason of his doing so ; whereupon the captain declar- 
ed : “ After leaving my native country and visiting other distant marts, I 
was compelled on account of adverse winds to anchor here for a little time; 
there is no other reason for my doing so, nor any occasion for you to repeat 
your inquiries.” Now 1 have ascertained that such is the cause of her com- 
ing, and also that in his ship there are men, guns, and weapons as follows ; 
namely, 200 sailors, 26 guns, 100 muskets, 100 swords, 800 catties of pow- 
der, and 800 balls. These facts are authentic.” We, besides having order- 
ed the pilots to keep a rigorous watch over the ship, do also, as it is proper , 
submit this statement of the case for your excellency’s examination.’ 

“Such is the report which has been made to me, the commissioner of customs. 
And on inquiry, I find that the said cruiser is not a merchant ship, nor for the 
protection of such ships, and that she has men, guns, and weapons, in very 
unusual numbers. It is not fit, therefore, that she should make any excuses for 
anchoring, and thereby create disturbance. She ought to be driven away. 
When these orders reach the hong merchants, let them, in obedience thereto, 
immediately communicate them to the person who has the direction of the af- 
fairs of the said nation, (commanding) him to guard her out to sea and 
order her to return home. Let her (captain) not frame deceits and loiter about 
to create disturbance. If there be any opposition, it shall be investigated. 
Moreover, report the day of her departure. Hasten ! Hasten ! A special edict. 

“ Taoukwang, 15th year, 11th moon, 21st day.” (January 9th, 1830.) 

Eunuchs. The Peking gazette for the 1 3th of September last, contains a long 
account of the elopement of two of his majesty’s eunuchs. The case was report- 
ed to the emperor by the governor of the province of Cheihle, and is briefly as 
follows. Two of the younger eunuchs, whose names are Chang Hingwang and 
Chang Sheen, having by accident, as they testified, committed some error in the 
management of their business, and fearingchaslisement from their superior, Leaou- 
tih the chief of the eunuchs, fled from the imperial residence to their native village, 
taking with them all their effects, and money to the amount of twenty-nine tales. 
This occurred about the middle of July. In about two weeks they reached their 
place of destination incognito ; but they had not been there long before the house 
in which they resided was broken open, and their effects and money taken away. 
The next morning after this was done, they went to the chief magistrate of the 
district, who immediately sent out his runner to pursue and apprehend the thieves. 
The eunuchs returning from the office of the magistrate, found all their effects 
replaced; the money, however, had not been brought back. Believing that this 
must have been done by the villains themselves, they went again directly to the 
magistrate to urge him to hasten their seizure. The magistrate was sitting in his 
open court, when the eunuchs arrived, who gave orders that they should be brought 
before him and be made to kneel; but as soon as they were in his presence, instead 
of kneeling, they seized the insignia of authority — slips of bamboo, &c , lying 
on the table before the sitting magistrate, railing at him furiously at the same time. 
A quarrel ensued which ended in the apprehension of the two eunuchs by the 
magistrate, who forthwith sent them up to the governor of Cheihle; and by him 
they were handed over to one of the tribunals for judgment. 



440 



Journal of Occurrences. 



Priests of the Taou sect. Extract from the Peking gazette of the 1 7th day, 7th 
moon, of the loth year of Taoukwang : September 9th, 1635. 

“The commander-in-chief of the infantry in the capital, has presented a me- 
morial to the emperor requesting the imperial will respecting persons delivered 
over for trial : and looking up, he begs that a holy glance may be bestowed on 
the case. The captain of the troops stationed at Poyang, having taken on suspi- 
cion a taousze, (a priest of the Taou sect,) named Sun Punchin, brought him with 
certain books, and delivered them to my care. Examining, I found two prohibit- 
ed books among them; namely, WanfSkweitsung, and Shintaoupeche ; and also 
some charms When I inquired where he obtained all these, he said, ‘they be- 
long to Wang Yungkwei a taousze who accompanied him to Peking.’ Immedi- 
ately I sent a warrant and brought the said taousze, who, when put on trial de- 
clared, “ he was a native of Hanyang foo in the province of Hoopih, and entered 
the priesthood in the temple Yuhhwang at Tebntsin. In the 6th moon of the cur- 
rent year, Sun Punchin caine and took up his residence in the same temple, 
where I became acquainted with those books and charms which are truly his pro- 
perty. From Teentsin I came to Peking, and went with permission to reside in 
the monastery of the White Clouds; Sun Punchin did not accompany me; and 
I beg he may be called and examined, then the truth of the case will be known.” 

“Sun Punching, in his evidence declared, “ I am a native of Tsingchow foo 
in the province of Shantung, and entered the priesthood in the temple of Ling- 
kwan in Tsenan foo, and have since been begging from place to place. In the 
4th moon of this year, 1 prayed for rain in my native village, the people having 
promised to allow me to reside in their temple and to reward me with a small 
piece of land. My prayers proving ineffectual, the people drove me from the 
temple; I afterwards engaged in telling fortunes, traveling towards Peking. 
Having reached the district of Fowching in the department of Hokebn, I took 
lodgings in the temple of Yuhhwang: while there, an individual, whose surname 
was Chaou, requested me to tell his fortune, which I did, and he gave me in 
return a parcel of medicine. In the 6th moon of the year, I reached Tebn- 
tsin, where I lived in the temple Yuhhwang, and went daily into the street to 
calculate fortunes. I used yellow paper, and drew pictures of the divine master to 
expell evil spirits: these I sold in the streets. At that time, Wang Yungkwei. the 
taousze, wished me to go with him to Peking. We proceeded together as far as 
Tungchow; there we separated, and I came here alone, bringing w’ith me some 
printed books, for calculating fortunes, and also the medicine. As for the charms, 
I heard Wang Yungkw ei say they belonged to a taousze, the- person who gave 
them to me.” 

“On inquiry, 1 find that the people of his native village did engage Sun Pun- 
ching to pray for rain, and that he has also presumed to bring prohibited books 
and seditious charms to the capital. lie has confessed that the books are his, but 
declared that the charms were not. This is evidently false, and there is reason 
to fear he is plotting mischief. As for the other taousze. who came begging to 
Peking, there is also reason to fear that he has not told the truth. It w r as my duty, 
therefore, to examine them both thoroughly, and also to request the imperial will 
for their being delivered over, with the books and charms, to the Board of Pun- 
ishments for trial. All this is requested. The same is granted, and recorded.” 

Yuen yuen. His majesty has sent down his will, directing that this his faithful 
servant — now near three-score years and ten — be admitted to an audience 
without attendants from the Board of War: “ this is done to show the emperor’s 
lender regard for his aged minister.” See the gazette for October J 4th . Not long 
ago. we saw a memorial from Yuen Yuen ; he was then actiug as governor in one 
of the w'estern provinces of the empire, although he had some time before been 
appointed one of his majesty’s chief ministers of state The audience noticed 
above, we presume, was granted immediately after his return from his guberna- 
torial duties. 

Henoan. it appears by'an extract from the gazette (nr the 19th of October, is 
again rising into notice. The emperor having gone and examined the new tombs 
recently constructed for his deceased consorts, was pleased to improve the occa- 
sion to confer special favors on certain individuals at court, and among them W'as 
that of'' secondary guardian of the crown prince” on Hengiln.